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the repetition of the same consonant or vowel sound at the start of words that is closely associated.


is a brief underdeveloped reference to a person, place, or thing that has historical, literal, geographical, or Biblical significance. Its purpose is for the compression of writing. In essence, the author hopes to make a point /connection without giving the whole story


a figure of speech in which an inanimate (nonliving) object, idea, or person is being addressed as though it were alive.


two successive lines of rhyming verse have the same rhythm and pattern


a figure of speech in which the author makes conscious use of exaggeration for emphasis or serious effect.


are the words or word groups the poet uses to help the reader picture or sense what is being described. Imagery is the creation of a picture(s) through words.


is a general term describing a recognized discrepancy or incongruity in meaning.

verbal irony

a type of irony where there is a difference between what is said and what is meant

situational irony

a type of irony where accidental events occur that seem oddly appropriate

Dramatic Irony

a type of irony in which we the readers are aware of events in a piece of writing but the characters in the story/narrative/poem are not aware


a figure of speech in which a direct comparison is being made between two unlike objects without using "like" or "as".


a figure of speech in which an object is described by its function or by a word closely associated with it.


the predominant atmosphere of a work/poem. It is conveyed most forcefully through imagery and rhythm.


the use of a word whose sound imitates, suggests, or reinforces its meaning.


the deliberate side by side placement of words that seem contradictory in meaning.


a statement which, upon first reading, appears to be contradictory, but upon closer reading, proves to be true.


a figure of speech attributing human like qualities to animals, inanimate objects or abstract ideas


a figure of speech in which the author plays on words.


a figure of speech in which an indirect comparison between two unlike objects is made with the use of "like" or "as".


a lyrical poem consisting of 14 lines with a specific rhyme pattern.

Shakespearean sonnet

consists of 3 quatrains (4lines in each) followed by a rhyming couplet (2 lines); Rhyming Scheme - ABAB CDCD EFEF GG

Italian sonnet

consists of an octave (8 lines) and a sestet (6 lines); Rhyming Scheme ABBA ABBA CDE CDE


the manner in which the author expresses his thoughts and feelings. Style is determined by imagery, rhythm, word choice, sound, and the arrangement of lines and ideas.


a figure of speech in which an object stands for or represents something on a much larger scale. It has significance beyond itself.


the message that the poem conveys about life.


the attitude of the author toward his subject and audience.

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