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Neuro Exam 1
Terms in this set (70)
this "group of neurons" receives information from the cerebral cortex and brainstem, and is responsible for modifying ongoing activity in motor pathways
motor function is initiated and executed in this brain lobe
this specific brain region is responsible for processing somatic sensations
primary somatosensory cortex
this structure is the site of corticospinal decussation and damage to it may result in the inability to breathe and maintain heartbeat
this functional division of the cerebellum receives input from the cerebral cortex and sends output to the thalamus, contributing to the planning of movement and motor learning
this classification of receptors relates to the stimuli they are sensitive to. these receptors are sensitive to changes in deformation, such as stretch, tension or compression.
this receptor is located in skeletal muscle tissue. it responds to changes in length and velocity. it is also involved in reciprocal inhibition
this articular receptor is located in joint capsules and ligaments. it responds to stretch, has a low threshold to activate, and is slow to adapt.
list three functions of neurons AND identify the part of the neuron responsible for each function.
receive information (dendrites), process and integrate information (soma), communicate information to target cell (axon)
this type of peripheral nerve injury is characterized by local damage to myelin, and is associated with a transient decrease in sensory and/or motor function.
this segmental arrangement of spinal nerves leads to patterned innervations. the motor distribution of these innervations is called a _____ ?
this neural pathway transmits pain, temperature, crude touch, and pressure to the primary somatosensory cortex via the lateral and anterior funiculi
this neural pathway is located in the posterior funicular. it travels from the dorsal horn of the spinal (1st order), decussates in the medulla (2nd order), and to the thalamus (3rd order) before ascending to the somatosensory cortex.
dorsal (posterior) column tract
this specific neural pathway comprises 90% of it's entire tract. it projects to alpha motor neurons in the spinal cord, allowing for movement to occur in the lower extremities
lateral corticospinal tract
this is the largest neuron in the body
pyramidal neuron (betz cell)
this term is used to describe the time between a stimulus (sensory) and reaction (motor). it can be influenced by the size of the nerve, the length of the nerve, or the number of synapses involved.
this classification of reflexes describes it's function, or it's response type and duration. this type of reflex may be oligo- or polysynaptic, and is characterized by a smooth reaction that lasts as long as a stimulus is maintained.
this "artificially induced reflex can be used to assess the integrity of the monosynaptic stretch reflex pathway. it can be provided information about the proportion of alpha motor neurons capable of being recruited.
list 3 factors of motor unit behavior that influence force generation
size of the motor unit, number of motor units recruited, frequency of motor unit action potentials
the term used to describe the frequency of motor unit action potentials
this glial cell is responsible for producing myelin to insulate axons outside the CNS
this type of neuron plays an important role in maintaining the tension of muscle spindles
gamma motor neuron
you decide to quickly stretch your hamstrings and immediately feel a reflexive contraction. what type of reflex response did you just initiate?
the spinal cord ends at this vertebral level
this is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the CNS
the 2nd largest neurons in the brain known for their elaborate dendritic tree structure
The basal ganglia consists of a group of neurons located deep to the cerebral cortex. It receives information from both the cerebral cortex and brainstem, and functions to modify ongoing activity in motor pathways (i.e. suppresses unwanted "antagonistic" movement) T/F
This structure of the brainstem is poorly defined, but consists of approximately 100 nuclei. It functions as a passageway for signals to and from the brain, and projects to the forebrain (cerebrum + diencephalon), cerebellum, and brainstem
motor learning and planning movement
sense of body control (proprioception)
control of balance and oculomotor function
The gamma motor neuron maintains appropriate tension within the muscle spindle, allowing it to remain sensitive to changes in length and velocity T/F
Some articular receptors, such as free nerve endings, are slow adapting. What does this mean?
once stimulated, they continue to send signals until the stimulus is removed
Which peripheral receptor is sensitive to tension within musculotendinous junctions?
Golgi tendon organs
Brain cortices are important for the execution of a particular task within a specific lobe (i.e. the primary motor cortex initiates movement within the frontal lobe). However, brain areas are necessary for integrating information from different lobes. Which brain area is most responsible for the organization of movement before it is initiated?
______ are peripheral receptors with a T-shaped (pseudo-unipolar) cell type
Which of the following structural brain components are most directly involved in the control of movement? Select all that apply.
cerebellum, cerebrum, brainstem, diencephalon
Action potentials occur when the transmembrane potential of a neuron reaches threshold. Where is the action potential initiated on the neuron?
Loss of axon continuity, loss of sensorimotor function below lesion
Discontinuity of entire nerve, requires surgical repair
Local myelin damage, axon intact, transient sensorimotor disruption
The incorrect direction of information transmission along neurons is referred to as __________
This type of neuron is most abundant and is important to relay information to functional centers of the central nervous system
Which of the following best describes the orthodromic response of an efferent (motor) nerve
spinal cord to effector (muscle)
A nerve injury classified as a neurotmesis has the capacity to regenerate T/F
The number, timing, and type of _____ dictate if an action potential will occur
Neurons may be classified by their morphology (shape). Alpha motor neurons consist of 1 axon with many dendritic trees. Which type of morphology does this describe?
Neurons are the fundamental structural and functional units of the nervous system. Which of the following describes a primary function of neurons? Select all that apply
receive information, process and integrate information, communicate information to target cell
The segmental arrangement of spinal nerves exiting the spinal column produces specific patterns of dermatomes (sensory distribution) and myotomes (motor distribution), which are very useful in clinical examination T/F
Stretching a muscle slowly is most likely to initiate which type of reflex response?
Which of the following represents a descending neural tract?
The role of the gamma motor neuron is to
maintain tension in muscle spindles
The Hoffmann reflex is the electrically induced analog to the monosynaptic spinal stretch reflex and provides information about the proportion of alpha motor neurons capable of being recruited T/F
Patients with damage to lower motor neurons located in the spinal cord (e.g. spinal cord injury) would most likely present with which of the following? Select all that apply
muscle weakness, decreased muscle tone, diminished/absent reflexes
Injury to the spinocerebellar tract would most likely impair which of the following sensations or functions?
Reflexes may be classified by their function. Which of the following best describes a phasic reflex response? Select all that apply
response is brief, quick reaction or reflex action, monosynaptic,
The organization of afferent information in the spinal cord is arranged based on which of the following? Select all that apply
sensory modality, somatic, medial-lateral rule
stretch reflex (tendon tap): short latency
flexor reflex (withdrawal): medium latency
crossed-extensor reflex (withdrawal + extension): long latency
Graded motor unit recruitment is important to allow for coordinated movement to occur. According to Henneman's Size Principle, which motor units would be recruited first when voluntarily activated?
A single motor unit will consist of the same muscle fiber types T/F
A reduced ability to voluntarily recruit motor units after an injury (i.e. inhibited motor neuron pool) may result in which of the following? Select all that apply
lower force output, more variable force output, altered rate coding
A __________ allows for a broad organizational scheme (e.g. more variability or degrees of freedom) for a muscle to function
motor neuron pool
Surface electromyography is commonly used to quantify motor unit recruitment T/F
Which of the following best describes the anticipated effect of a triceps-brachii contraction on biceps-brachii muscle activity (i.e. increased co-contraction)?
biceps activity decreases
Small motor units turn on after, discharge slower, and produce more force compared to larger motor units T/F
The innervation ratio of motor units is not standard and depends on the demands of the muscle. Which of the following muscles would have the lowest innervation ratio? How would this affect its function
orbitularis oculi: fine movement
The contribution of motor units to force generation depends on which of the following? Select all that apply
size of motor unit, number of motor units recruited, frequency of motor unit action potentials (rate coding)
The smallest functional unit of the sensorimotor system, consisting of a single alpha motor neuron and all of the muscle fibers it innervates
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