Upgrade to remove ads
Arts and Humanities
History of Europe
Western Civ 1- Final Exam
Terms in this set (167)
monotheistic religion developed from Hebrews; considered to be the first major monotheistic religion
religion based on the person and teachings of Jesus Christ; believe Jesus Christ is the son of God and Messiah
Jewish teacher who preached reforms in Judaism. His followers believed him to be the Messiah and savior sent by God to redeem humanity. Over time, his disciples spread Jesus' message of compassion and forgiveness throughout the Roman Empire
Jesus of Nazareth
Emperor of Rome who adopted the Christian faith and stopped the persecution of Christians (280-337)
a specific person who is set aside in life as a sacred so they can perform special tasks for God
one of the leaders of the first generation of Christians; some consider to be the most important person in the history of Christianity behind Jesus
second part of the Christian bible
people that are not Jewish
means "lord's house"
first part of the Christian Bible
Roman Emperor who is known for the first one to organize persecution of Christians throughout the empire
each Roman city was headed by one of these; as the western empire declined, the agents of secular government disappeared, and these people became the only officials left in many cities
chief of Jesus' disciples; was believed to have been Rome's first bishop
Bishop of Rome as head of the Roman Catholic Church
deliberately struck a blow at the pagan roots of classical civilization by bestowing his imperial patronage on Christianity
authorized or generally accepted theory, doctrine, or practice
first council in the history of the Christian church that was intended to address the entire body of believers
Council of Nicaea
statement of belief widely used in Christian liturgy
a member of a religious community of men typically living under vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience
rules drawn up by Benedict, a monk, regulating monastic life; emphasizes obedience, poverty, and chastity and divides the day into periods of worship, work, and study
Italian hermit who wrote the rule adopted by most monks in the west
the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during the Middle Ages when its capital city was Constantinople
nephew of Roman emperor, Justin; succeeded his uncle and assembled a team of remarkable people to help him run his empire
major reform of Byzantine law created by Emperor Justinian
Corpus Juris Civilis
adherence to correct or accepted creeds, especially in religion
church that has been the decisive spiritual force in the history of Western civilization; believe that the Pope, based in Rome, is the successor to Saint Peter whom Christ appointed as the first head of His church
Arab prophet; founder of Islam
one and only god in Islam
city in Saudi Arabia; Muhammad's birthplace
small shrine located near the center of the Great Mosque in Mecca and considered by Muslims everywhere to be the most sacred spot on Earth
Abraham's first son according to Jews, Christians, and Muslims
only son that Abraham had with Sara
Islam's sacred book, believed to be the word of God as dictated to Muhammad by the archangel Gabriel and written down in Arabic
religion of the Muslims, monotheistic faith regarded as revealed through Muhammad as the prophet of Allah
spiritual and literal journey which meant a break with the tribe of one's birth and a commitment to a new community whose members were bound by faith, not blood
the first of Muhammad's prestigious converts and a long-time friend, that prevented Islam's dissolution
"successor" to Muhammad's duties as the head of the umma
wife of Muhammad and daughter of the first caliph
core beliefs and practices of Islam
Five Pillars of Islam
Islamic term which refers to Jews, Christians and Sabians. It is also used in Judaism to refer to the Jewish people and by members of some Christian denominations to refer to themselves.
"People of the Book"
Who was Jesus of Nazareth and how did his movement build on his roots in
Claimed by Christianity to be the son of God. Jesus of Nazareth was arguably the most influential individual in Western history. His brief career as the leader of a small band of Jewish disciples ended when he was crucified in Jerusalem during the reign of Emperor Tiberius. After his death some of his acquaintances claimed that he was the messiah. Jesus and his disciples were all Jews, when Jesus died, Christianity and Judaism drifted farther apart.
How did the Jesus movement spread and what new name did it assume? Who were
some of the people who helped to spread Christianity throughout the Empire?
Some of Jesus' acquaintances claimed that he had risen from the grave and was the messiah. They went around proclaiming this good news. The new name it assumed was Christianity. Some of the people who helped spread Christianity throughout the Empire were James and Paul and other early followers of Jesus.
What are monasteries and how did they develop? Who are monks and what were
their roles? What was the role of monasteries during the fall of the Roman Empire?
Why are they important?
A monastery is a building or buildings occupied by a community of monks living under religious vows. Monasteries developed from a former Roman soldier. He united the monks under one roof and abbot. They were part of the social welfare system of the church serving as orphanages and what we could consider to be hospitals. Monks could separate themselves from society.
Orthodoxy is an authorized or generally accepted theory, doctrine, or practice
heresy was the belief or opinion opposite of the orthodox religion
it was forced to talk about the heresy of Arian
was forced to talk about the heresy of Arian
statement of the orthodox faith of the early Christian church in opposition to certain heresies, especially Arianism
who was the first emperor to embrace Christianity and convert the empire?
Why did Constantine divide the Empire into East and West?
He realized that the Roman Empire was too large for one man to rule
What city became the capital of the Roman Empire under Constantine?
Who was the last person to rule the Roman Empire and the first to declare Christianity as its official religion?
Why was Constantine significant?
He was the first Roman Emperor to claim conversion to Christianity
emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 527 to 565; best remembered for his work as a legislator and codifier
Also known as the Code of Justinian; collection of laws and legal interpretations developed under the sponsorship of the Byzantine emperor Justinian I
Corpus Jurvis Civilis
Why was the Justinian Code important?
It was the foundation for the Byzantine legal system for nearly nine hundred years
Who was the common ancestor of both the Hebrews and the Arab Muslims
How is Abraham related to the Hebrews and the Arab Muslims
Abraham's son, Ismael, is considered to be Father of the Arabs; his son, Isaac, is called father of the Hebrews
founder of Islam
Where was Muhammad born?
What movement marks the beginning of Islam?
In 622, Muhammad traveled from Mecca to Medina with his supporters; this journey became known as the Hijra
What was the most sacred place on earth in Islam?
What are similarities between Islam and Christianity?
Both Islam and Christianity believe in God
What set of beliefs was the summary of Muslim practice?
Five Pillars of Islam
the Islamic sacred book
why was the Qur'an called the recitations?
an important meaning of the word Qur'an is "the act of reciting"
Who succeeded Muhammad after his death?
What was the Byzantine Empire and Byzantine culture comprised of?
a christian state with a largely Greek-speaking population and a partially Persian culture
Frankish chief who united his people, founded a dynast, and began the arduous task of reorganizing Western Europe in the wake of Rome's decline
name of the dynasty founded by Clovis
head of an up-and-coming noble family; Franks leader
medieval emperor who ruled much of Western Europe ; became King of the Franks
King of the Franks; first Carolingian to become king
Pepin the Short
provided a legal basis for the creation of Papal States
Donation of Pepin
territories of central Italy over which the pope had sovereignty from 756 to 1870
contractual arrangement between lord and man, established by a ceremony of homage
king of the Franks and emperor of the West; son and successor of Charlemagne
Louis the Pious
divided the Frankish Empire into three kingdoms among the surviving sons of the emperor Louis the Pious
Treaty of Verdun
King of France and Holy Roman Emperor; son of emperor Louis the Pious
Charles the Bald
first king of East Francia
Louis the German
oldest son of Louis the Pious; his kingdom was divided among his heirs and eventually disappeared as the rulers of France and Germany grabbed parts of it
resource given to vassals to support them while they served their lord
the dominant social system in medieval Europe, in which the nobility held lands from the Crown in exchange for military service, and vassals were in turn tenants of the nobles, while the peasants were obliged to live on their lord's land and give him homage, labor, and a share of the produce, notionally in exchange for military protection
holder of land by feudal tenure on conditions of homage and allegiance
formal oath of a vassal to honor his or her lord's rights
medieval agricultural cooperatives
peasant farmers bound to the land
religious way of life in which one renounces worldly pursuits to devote oneself fully to spiritual work
Benedictine monk who led the mission, set up headquarters in Canterbury, the capital of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Kent
an ascetic scholar who produced the Vulgate, latin translation of the bible that was used throughout the middle ages
wrote a series of instructions for his monastery at Monte Cassino, outlining instructions for a life of work and prayer in the monastic community (Benedictine Rule)
Benedict of Nursia
areas of knowledge needed by a free man; emphasized literary skill
founded Francia's Merovingian dynasty
What was Clovis doing when he created the Merovingian Empire
He believed that the Franks should rule Gaul; His dynasty turned into modern day France
Also known as Charles the Great; first emperor of the Holy Roman Empire
What contributions did Charlemagne make?
He encouraged the Carolingian Renaissance
a cultural and intellectual revival in France
What was Charlemagne's legacy?
When he died, his empire encompassed much of Western Europe; also helped ensure the survival of christianity in the west
King of the Franks and co-emperor with his father, Charlemagne
Louis the Pious
Who were Louis the Pious' sons
Lothair I, Pepin, and Louis(Louis the German)
What was the name of the treaty dividing Louis the Pious' kingdom between his sons
Treaty of Verdun
How did the treaty affect the Carolingian kingdom and Europe in general?
Carolingian kings lost power and central authority broke down; they lacked strong rulers which led to a new system of government
dominant social system in medieval Europe, in which the nobility held lands from the Crown in exchange for military service, and vassals were in turn tenants of the nobles, while the peasants (villeins or serfs) were obliged to live on their lord's land and give him homage, labor, and a share of the produce, notionally in exchange for military protection
describe the structure of feudal society
a ruler of lord offers mounted fighters a unit of land to control in exchange for a military service
holder of land by feudal tenure on conditions of homage and allefiance
what is a lord?
ruler of a large area of land
What was the lord's relationship in feudal society?
a lord was a noble who held land, a vassal was a person who was granted possession of the land by the lord, and the land was known as a fief
what is liege homage?
involved the vassal admitting his obligation to pay all services, including the provision of military assistance
What is a fief or a feudum?
resource given to vassals to support them while they served their lord
what was the purpose of a fief/feudum?
the income the fief provided supported the vassal, who fought for his lord as a knight
what was the purpose of monasticism?
It was used as an instrument for the creation, preservation, and transmission of secular and religious traditions
Who was Benedict of Nursia?
He was a saint that was the founding patriarch of Western monasticism
an attempt by the Catholic church to limit private warfare between feudal lords
Truce of God
a movement led by the medieval church, and later by civil authorities, to protect ecclesiastical property and women, priests, pilgrims, merchants, and other noncombatants form violence from the 10th to 12th century
Peace of God
wrote the rule that would become the foundation of western monasticism
Benedict of Nursia
how were financial transactions completed during the Middle Ages?
through the exchange of consumable or desirable items
method of agricultural organization introduced in Europe in the Middle Ages and representing a decisive advance in production techniques
Who was the first king of England
Athelstan, the first king of England, conquered what
England in 937 AD
pope that launched the crusades
Pope Urban II
What was the purpose of the division of England into shires with sheriffs?
Once the Kingdom of England was united as a whole in 927, it became necessary to subdivide it into shires so that it could be ruled effectively
"rebirth"; an era which emphasizes education, art and critical thinking
a medieval association of craftsmen or merchants, often having considerable power
another name for guild; medieval association of craftsmen or merchants, often having considerable power
highest academic title; a lengthy course of advanced study in a specialized field
entry-level students in medieval universities were these
bachelor of arts
man belonging to any of the Roman Catholic religious orders of mendicants, having taken a vow of poverty
a monastic order founded by St. Benedict of Nursia in the 6th century
son of Henry II; became king after the death of his brother; granted the Magna Carta
charter of rights agreed to by King John of England; guaranteed English political liberties
dynasty that ruled England and much of France during the medieval period; One of the most powerful and influential houses in all of British history
Oldes son of King John; longes serving English monarch up until George III
a gathering of the same type, an assembly of prominent men, summoned at the will of the King once or twice a year, to deal with matters of state and law
ruling house of France from 987 to 1328, during the feudal period of the Middle Ages; Laid the foundation for France
Capetian king of France who spend most of his short reign establishing royal power in Poitou and Languedoc
King of Franace who consolidated the crown's control over the great lords, proved his passion for justice, and went on two crusades
Why is the 12th century renaissance considered a renaissance?
It included social, political and economic transformations, and an intellectual revitilization of Western Europe with a strong philisophical and scientific roots
How did monasteries affect education in the High Middle Ages?
Monks found comfort in monasteries and encouraged each other's company; many monks were literate and could copy texts; they became centers for educating clergy
a coroporation organized during the middle ages for the purposes of higher education
Where was the first university established?
Bologna in the late 11th century
the practice of adding words to the text in order to explain or comment on what it said in it
plague that wiped out big cities; affected young and old people
the legislative body in Franc until 1789; representing the three estates of the realm
series of conflicts in Europe over a series of disputes
Hundred Years War
succeeded in ending the Wards of the Roses between the houses of Lancaster and York; founded the Tudor Dynasty
series of kings and queens of England; started when Henry Tudor defeated Richard III, which made him King Henry VIII of England
What impact did the Black Death have on Europe?
A quarter of the European population was wiped out; reduction in production and consumption
how many people were killed from the Black Death?
rediscovery of Greek philosophy
considered the father of humanism
happened in 14th century Italy; transition from middle age to modern
What aspects of the Renaissance do historians agree about?
Cultural aspect- latin and vernacular literatures; politics- customs and conventions of diplomacy; science- increased reliance on observation and inductive reasoning; art- Leonardo da Vinci; Michelangelo- discoveries in acoustics, botany, anatomy, geology
where did the Renaissance happen
14th century Italy
Where was the Renaissance centered?
What were the largest cities in Europe during the Renaissance
Florence, Venice, Genoa, and Rome
created a universal man whose person combined intellectual and physical excellence and who was capable of functioning honorably in any situation
Father of Humanism
What did Petrarch believe?
Humanity could once more reach the heights of past accomplishments
What were bachelors of arts?
entry-level students in universities; young males
what were masters of arts?
taught students in bachelor's of art
What was a doctor?
means teacher; lengthy course of advanced study in a specialized field; most prestigious
means brother; priest in catholic church; vowed to do service and poverty ; merchant, traveling to preach, educate people, and treat the sick
How were friars different from earlier monks?
friars were evangelical, service to society, vows of poverty obedience, travel; monks make their vows to stay in a particular community in one place
"The Great Charter"
secured liberties for England's elite class; brought an end to the absolute power of English sovereigns as they were held accountable by law
Why was the Magna Carta created?
to protect their rights and property against a tyrannical king so everyone was subject to the law, even the king and guarantees the rights of individuals, the right to a fair trial
Other sets by this creator
chapter 10 - The Muscle system
bio 225 chapter 10
bio 225-exam 2
Other Quizlet sets
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM: STOMACH AND SMALL INTESTINE
CE 366 Test 2
CRJ248 - Chapter 9