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• First Estate: Catholic clergy (1% of pop.)
• Second Estate: Nobility (<2%)
• Third Estate: Public (97%): bourgeoisie, sans culottes, peasants
Causes of the Revolution
• Inequalities in society
• Ideas of Enlightenment writers and success of American Revolution
• Financial crisis
• Widespread hunger and record cold
Declaration of the Rights Man and of the Citizen
a document that laid out the basic principles of the French Revolution (liberty, equality and fraternity), inspired by English Bill of Rights and Declaration of Independence and Enlightenment philosophers, stated that all men are born equal and remain equal before the law
Napoleon's Rise and Fall from Power
• Turmoil of French Revolution gave him prime opportunity
• Brilliant military leader, defended French interior and countryside (borders)
• Exaggerated successes (and hid defeat in Egypt)
• Coup d'état against Directory and Consulate formed with Napoleon as first Consul and a dictator (1799)
• Failed Russian Campaign (about 506,000 French troops killed)
• Exile to Elba, Brief Return (Hundred Days) and Loss at Battle of Waterloo
• Final exile to Saint Helena
Napoleon organized French law, made laws uniform across the nation and eliminated injustices, and promoted order and authority over individual rights (limited freedom of press)
• Jean-Paul Marat-advocate of violence and a leader of the Paris sans culottes
• Georges-Jacques Danton-violent agitator in early days of Republic, popular with public
• Maximilien Robespierre-led the National Convention during its most bloodthirsty time
Reign of Terror
period during French Revolution in which the Robespierre-led government executed thousands of political figures and ordinary citizens
• Written constitution for France
• Insecurity for absolute monarchs
• Napoleon's seizure of power
• Growth of nationalism
• Spread of revolutionary to Latin America, Asia and Africa
• Congress of Vienna
agreement Napoleon made with citizens; acknowledged that most were Roman Catholics but did not require it
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