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PSY 100 - Mid Term Study Guide
Northern Michigan University
Terms in this set (56)
1. Define the "mind" and the "brain." How are they different?
The brain is the organ that houses the mind. The mind is the manifestations of thought, perception, emotion, determination, memory and imagination that takes place within the brain
1. Why is psychology considered a hub science?
Because psychology has a large influence on other scientific fields
1. What does "peer review" mean, in the context of a scientific source. Be able to distinguish peer reviewed sources from non-peer reviewed sources
Peer review has been defined as a process of subjecting an author's scholarly work, research or ideas to the scrutiny of others who are experts in the same field. ... The major advantage of a peer review process is that peer-reviewed articles provide a trusted form of scientific communication.
1. Why is "replication" important in scientific research
When studies are replicated and achieve the same or similar results as the original study, it gives greater validity to the findings. If a researcher can replicate a study's results, it means that it is more likely that those results can be generalized to the larger population.
1. What is descriptive research?
Descriptive research aims to accurately and systematically describe a population, situation or phenomenon. It can answer what, where, when and how questions, but not why questions. ... Unlike in experimental research, the researcher does not control or manipulate any of the variables, but only observes and measures them.
1. What is William James known as the father of?
The founder of the school of behaviorism
1. What is a correlational study? What is a negative and positive correlation?
Correlational research is a type of nonexperimental research in which the researcher measures two variables and assesses the statistical relationship (i.e., the correlation) between them with little or no effort to control extraneous variables. A positive correlation means that the variables move in the same direction. Put another way, it means that as one variable increases so does the other, and conversely, when one variable decreases so does the other. A negative correlation means that the variables move in opposite directions.
1. Be able to define and differentiate an independent variable from a dependent variable
Independent variable: What the scientist changes or what changes on its own. Dependent variable: What is being studied/measured. The independent variable (sometimes known as the manipulated variable) is the variable whose change isn't affected by any other variable in the experiment.
1. What is a confound variable?
Confounding variables are factors other than the independent variable that may cause a result. It is sort of indirect. Like a caffeine intake study, but lets say the caffeine in takers got more sleep.
1. Define a population and a sample.
your sample is the group of individuals who participate in your study, and your population is the broader group of people to whom your results will apply. As an analogy, you can think of your sample as an aquarium and your population as the ocean.
1. Why is "random assignment" important for psychological research?
Not only does this process help eliminate possible sources of bias, but it also makes it easier to generalize the results of a tested sample population to a larger population.
1. What does an Institutional Review Board do?
designated to review and monitor biomedical research involving human subjects. In accordance with FDA regulations, an IRB has the authority to approve, require modifications in (to secure approval), or disapprove research.
1. What is informed consent?
Informed consent is a process of communication between you and your health care provider that often leads to agreement or permission for care, treatment, or services.
1. What does an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee do?
An institutional animal care and use committee (IACUC) is required by federal regulations for most institutions that use animals in research, teaching, and testing. The IACUC has a key oversight role, including the review and approval of animal use activities, and inspection of animal facilities.
1. What is central tendency?
The three common measures of central tendency are the mean, the median and the mode
1. What is variability?
Variability refers to how spread scores are in a distribution out; that is, it refers to the amount of spread of the scores around the mean
1. What are neurons?
the cells responsible for receiving sensory input from the external world, for sending motor commands to our muscles, and for transforming and relaying the electrical signals at every step in between.
For a neuron, be able to identify and name the general function of the following: Dendrites, Soma, Axon, Axon Terminal
1) dendrites: The extensions of a neuron that receive messages from other neurons, 2) soma: Also known as a soma, the cell body is the neuron's core. The cell body carries genetic information, maintains the neuron's structure, and provides energy to drive activities, 3) axon: it is where electrical impulses from the neuron travel away to be received by other neurons, and 4) axon terminal The axonal terminals are specialized to release the neurotransmitters of the presynaptic cell. The terminals release transmitter substances into a gap called the synaptic cleft between the terminals and the dendrites of the next neuron.
1. What is an action potential?
rapid depolarization (upstroke) followed by repolarization of the membrane potential. Action potentials are the basic mechanism for transmission of information in the nervous system and in all types of muscle.
1. What are the three components that make up a synapse?
The presynaptic ending that contains neurotransmitters
The synaptic cleft between the two nerve cells
The postsynaptic ending that contains receptor sites
1. How is a neurotransmitter and receptor pairing like a key with a lock?
Because the neurotransmitter binds to a receptor much the same way as a key fits into a lock, only that neuron can unlock that receptor
1. There are many different types of neurotransmitters. Each is associated with some general physiological or behavioral effects, which are produced via the receptors they bind to, the types of neurons receptors are found on, and the structures where the neurons are found. Characterized the basic functions for the neurotransmitters: Acetylcholine & Dopamine
a. Acetylcholine: Acetylcholine is the chief neurotransmitter of the parasympathetic nervous system, the part of the autonomic nervous system (a branch of the peripheral nervous system) that contracts smooth muscles, dilates blood vessels, increases bodily secretions, and slows heart rate.
b. Dopamine: your nervous system uses it to send messages between nerve cells. That's why it's sometimes called a chemical messenger. Dopamine plays a role in how we feel pleasure.
1. Define the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system.
Central Nervous System: the complex of nerve tissues that controls the activities of the body. In vertebrates it comprises the brain and spinal cord.
Peripheral nervous system:The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is the division of the nervous system containing all the nerves that lie outside of the central nervous system (CNS). The primary role of the PNS is to connect the CNS to the organs, limbs, and skin.
1. Name and describe the functions of the two systems in the peripheral nervous system.
Somatic Nervous System: The primary function of the somatic nervous system is to connect the central nervous system to the body's muscles to control voluntary movements and reflex arcs.
Autonomic nervous system: The autonomic nervous system is a control system that acts largely unconsciously and regulates bodily functions, such as the heart rate, digestion, respiratory rate, pupillary response, urination, and sexual arousal. This system is the primary mechanism in control of the fight-or-flight response.
1. Name and describe the functions of the two subsystems of the autonomic nervous system.
Parasympathetic Nervous System: The parasympathetic nervous system controls bodily functions when a person is at rest. Some of its activities include stimulating digestion, activating metabolism, and helping the body relax.
Sympathetic Nervous System: The sympathetic nervous system directs the body's rapid involuntary response to dangerous or stressful situations. A flash flood of hormones boosts the body's alertness and heart rate, sending extra blood to the muscles.
What is the endocrine system?
The endocrine system is the collection of glands that produce hormones that regulate metabolism, growth and development, tissue function, sexual function, reproduction, sleep, and mood, among other things.
1. Neurotransmitters are not the only chemical messengers. Another large class of chemical messengers are hormones. What are hormones?
Hormones are chemical messengers that are secreted directly into the blood, which carries them to organs and tissues of the body to exert their functions. There are many types of hormones that act on different aspects of bodily functions and processes. Some of these include: Development and growth.
1. Provide the basic function of the following structures
a. Hippocampus: Learning and memory
b. Hypothalamus: eating or drinking, in the control of the body's temperature and energy maintenance, and in the process of memorizing and in stress control. It also modulates the endocrine system through its connections with the pituitary gland.
c. Medulla: plays an essential role in passing messages between your spinal cord and brain. It's also essential for regulating your cardiovascular and respiratory systems.
d. Cerebellum: balance/coordination
e. Amygdala: While it is often associated with the body's fear and stress responses, it also plays a pivotal role in memory.
f. Nucleus accumbens: Reward and reinforcement
g. Corpus callosum: ensures both sides of the brain can communicate and send signals to each other.
h. Cerebral cortex: key role in attention, perception, awareness, thought, memory, language, and consciousness.
1. Lobes of the cerebral cortex: Provide the basic function(s) of each and be able to identify the lopes if presented with an image of the brain to label.
a. Frontal: voluntary movement, expressive language and for managing higher level executive functions
b. Parietal: it is the primary cortical area for somatic sensation, the sense of touch and limb position
c. Occipital: Responsible for vision
d. Temporal: Auditory information is processed here
1. Define and describe sensation and perception. What is the difference between the two?
sensation is the feeling you get from something, whereas perception how you view something based on the sensation it gives you
For rods and cones, know 1) how well each respond to color, 2) whether they are distributed most in the fovea or periphery of the retina, and 3) whether they provide good for poor details for images.
1. Rods respond to low light levels whereas cones respond to higher light levels (colors)
2. Cones are distributed in the fovea at higher numbers. Rods are distributed in the periphery of the retina more.
a. What accounts for the blind spot?
there are no photoreceptors. Since there are no photoreceptor cells detecting light, it creates a blind spot.
What is audition?
Audition is the formal phrase for hearing
1. Referring to sound waves, describe loudness and pitch.
The frequency of the resulting sound waves will determine the pitch and the amplitude will determine the loudness of the perceived sound.
1. What is the kinesthetic sense?
the senses of position and movement of the body, senses we are aware of only on introspection.
1. What is the vestibular sense?
detect head motion and position relative to gravity and is primarily involved in the fine control of visual gaze, posture, orthostasis, spatial orientation, and navigation.
1. Define an objective effect and a subjective effect.
Subjective: Based on of influenced by personal feeling or opinions
Objective: not influenced by personal feelings or opinion in considering and representing facts
1. What does consciousness refer to?
Your awareness of yourself and the world around you
1. What are the three characteristics of attention?
Attention is limited, selective, can be divided
1. What is a Freudian slip? What would Freud argue as a cause of such a slip?
An unintentional error regarded as revealing subconscious feelings. These memory lapses and errors happen when thoughts or desires you've either suppressed (consciously pushed away) or repressed (buried without thinking) resurface.
1. Aside from what Freud would argue, what are some reasons for a so-called "slip."
When you are told not to think of a certain word, you tend to think of it more because youre trying so hard to not think of it.
1. What is hypnosis?
Hypnosis is a trance-like mental state in which people experience increased attention, concentration, and suggestibility. While hypnosis is often described as a sleep-like state, it is better expressed as a state of focused attention, heightened suggestibility, and vivid fantasies.
1. Describe agonist and antagonist actions for psychoactive drugs.
Agonist: Mimics the operation of a neurotransmitter
Antagonist: blocks the action of a neurotransmitter and some block the reuptake of neurotransmitters at the synapse.
1. What effects does a depressant drug have?
reduce activity in the central nervous system and lower levels of awareness in the brain. symptoms such as drowsiness, relaxation, decreased inhibition, anesthesia, sleep, coma, and even death.
1. What effects does a psychostimulant have?
Stimulates the CNS. Causes excitation and elevated mood, as well as increased alertness and arousal, speeds up signals into the brain.
1. Define learning
the acquisition of knowledge or skills through experience, study, or by being taught.
1. Define habituation
the diminishing of a physiological or emotional response to a frequently repeated stimulus.
1. Define sensitization
Sensitization is the strengthening of a neurological response to a stimulus due to the response to a secondary stimulus.
1. What is long-term potentiation? What neurotransmitter is critical for long-term potentiation?
long-term potentiation (LTP) is a persistent strengthening of synapses based on recent patterns of activity. Glutamate is critical neurotransmitter for long term potentiation.
1. Define the following and be able to identify an example of each:
a. Unconditioned stimulus: Something that naturally triggers a response without any learning. Ex: dog smelling food
b. Unconditioned response: Feeling of hunger in response to the smell
c. Neutral stimulus: ringing bell when there is no food emits to response
d. Conditioned stimulus: after an association is made, subject emits a behavior in response to the previously neutral stimulus. Sound of a whistle when you smell the food
e. Conditioned response: feeling hungry when you hear the whistle
1. Who founded the field of behaviorism? What is behaviorism?
John B. Watson founded behaviorism. theory of learning based on the idea that all behaviors are acquired through conditioning. Conditioning occurs through interaction with the environment.
1. Define reinforcement (note, a specific consequence, like a food pellet, is referred to as a "reinforcer").
a consequence that follows an operant response that increase (or attempts to increase) the likelihood of that response occurring in the future.
1. Define punishment (again, punisher is a single punishing stimulus or event)
a consequence that follows an operant response that decreases (or attempts to decrease) the likelihood of that response occurring in the future.
1. What is the difference between positive and negative reinforcement?
Positive reinforcement is a process that strengthens the likelihood of a particular response by adding a stimulus after the behavior is performed. Negative reinforcement also strengthens the likelihood of a particular response, but by removing an undesirable consequence.
1. The book illustrates the basic ideas about information processing involved in memory. Define the following terms and be familiar with the overall concept for memory processing.
a. Encoding: The initial learning of information
b. Storage: maintaining information over time
c. Consolidation: brain coverts short term memories into long term memories.
Retrieval: ability to access information that is stored
1. Name a type of memory mediated by the following structures:
a. Hippocampus: Declarative, episodic, an recognition memory
b. Prefrontal cortex
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