Industrialization, Nationalism, Reform Movements

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Causes of Industrial Revolution

• Availability of raw materials and markets in colonies
• Great Britain's seapower and political stability
• Parliament's support of free enterprise
• Agricultural improvements in Great Britain
• Enclosure movement in Great Britain
• Great Britain's factors of production: land, labor, capital
• Invention of new machines in textile industry
• Development of steam engine
• Increased individual freedom in the West
• Western attitudes toward competition

Effects of Industrial Revolution

Development of labor-saving, time-saving machines
• Factory system
• Poor working conditions
• Overcrowding, pollution, disease in cities
• Competing ideas about economics
• Rise in standard of living, growth of middle class
• Rise of new industries and powerful industrialists
• New emphasis on middle-class home life
• Increased power of industrialized countries

Pros and Cons of Industrial Revolution

• Pros: mass production, lower prices, affordability, urbanization, lowered unemployment
• Cons: downfall of cottage industry, pollution, labor problems


economic system in which most businesses are privately owned


a risk taker who starts a new business within the economic system of capitalism


economic and political system in which government owns the means of production and controls economic planning; a socialist economic system without social classes


a political and economic system in which society, usually in the form of the government, owns the means of production

Andrew Carnegie

• American industrialist and humanitarian
• Led the expansion of American steel industry
• Born in Scotland, "rags to riches"

Iron Law of Wages

By banker David Ricardo, said natural economic forces would keep wages low

Technological advances and impact on science medicine and daily life

• Natural selection, evolution, atomic theory, periodic table, radioactivity, atomic nucleus, theory of relativity
• Pasteurization and vaccination, anesthetics, antiseptics, modern hospitals, training for doctors and nurses
• Freud's theories of unconscious, Pavlov's theory of conditioned response, scientific approach to archaeology, anthropology, sociology

Social and political reforms in Britain

• Series of Reforms passed by British Parliament during 1800s early 1900s
• Reform Act of 1832: gave more equal representation
• Abolition of Slavery 1833: Abolished slavery in Britain and colonies
• Factory Acts of 1833 and 1839: Limited working hours of children and women in factories
• People's Charter 1839: Voting rights for all men and voting by secret ballot
• Voting Reforms 1867-1885: Gave men of all classes voting rights
• Women's Suffrage 1918 and 1928: Granted women over 30 the right to vote in 1918 and all women in 1928

Women's suffrage

Members of parliament were pushing for women's suffrage (right to vote), Queen Victoria was against it, Disraeli was all for it

Abolition of Slavery

Abolition of Slavery 1833, compensated slave owners depending on how many slaves they freed, slaves over age six remained only partly free for another four years

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