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Research Methods Modules 3&4
Terms in this set (51)
True or False: Randomize controlled trials are generally considered a stronger study design compared to case-control studies
True or False: Non-experimental study designs can be used to establish causal relationships
True or False: Non-experimental study designs are generally weaker than experimental study designs
Identify the timing of data collection (retrospective, cross-sectional, prospective): Have you fallen in the past year?
Identify the timing of data collection (retrospective, cross-sectional, prospective): Occupational work records were used to determine work exposure to noise the past 10 years.
Identify the timing of data collection (retrospective, cross-sectional, prospective): Blood pressure and cholesterol were measured at baseline, 6 months, and 1 year.
Identify the timing of data collection (retrospective, cross-sectional, prospective): Are you currently experiencing back pain?
Identify the timing of data collection (retrospective, cross-sectional, prospective): Have you had back pain in the past year?
Identify the timing of data collection (retrospective, cross-sectional, prospective): A comprehensive hearing assessment is conducted at a single time point in the audiology clinic.
Identify the timing of data collection (retrospective, cross-sectional, prospective): Participants were weighed at baseline (PRE) and 8 week post-intervention (POST).
Identify the timing of data collection (retrospective, cross-sectional, prospective): Blood pressure and cholesterol were both measured at the same visit.
The outcome of which type of study is most vulnerable to recall bias?
Which type of research study is where results are often reported in words, narratives, and quotes?
qualitative research study
Name a disadvantage of a prospective study design
retention and repeated measurements of enrolled participants is challenging and expensive
Surveys with open-ended questions are characteristic of which broad category of research?
What types of questions are good focus group questions?
Which of the following study designs is most suited to generating hypotheses?
In an experimental study, what is the purpose of randomization?
randomization increases the chances that known and unknown cofounders are distributed equally between placebo and intervention groups
An advantage of a double-blind approach to a randomized controlled trial is
decreases researcher bias in measuring the study outcome
An experimental research study where the participants are not randomized to the intervention or treatment is called a
True or False: Randomized controlled trials are generally considered a stronger study design compared to case controlled studies
True or False: Non-experimental study designs can be used to establish cause and effect relationships
What are the two main types of research?
quantitative and qualitative
What are the two types of quantitative research?
experimental and non-experimental
What is the difference between experimental and non-experimental study designs?
experimental intervenes where non-experimental does not intervene
What are the two types of non-experimental (observational) studies?
analytical study and descriptive study
What are the types of analytical studies that are used to test hypotheses?
cross-sectional studies, longitudinal studies, case-control studies
What are the types of experimental studies?
randomized controlled trial and non-randomized controlled trial (quasi-experimental)
a study asking about the past is known as what type of data collection
a study with one time data collection in the present is known as what type of data collection
a study that goes forward in time or follows subjects to the future is known as what type of data collection
this research is where someone observes a condition or situation, there is no manipulation or intervention, and cannot examine cause-effect relationships
study design used to determine prevalence of disease and or exposure in a specific population at one point in time
focus on the potential causal factor and follows individuals forward in time to identify health outcomes
a factor that is an antecedent to an outcome
an event of interest that may be influences by the exposure
a study where exposure information is collected retrospectively in cases as well as controls
What is considered the "gold standard" and is intended to examine cause effect relationships?
What must an experimental study always have?
a treatment, and treatment/control groups randomly assigned
Which variable is manipulated by the researcher and is considered to be the cause?
Which variable is the second variable measured and is considered to be the effect?
the group that receives the treatment in experimental research
the group that does not get the treatment in experimental research
subjects do not know if they are receiving the treatment or placebo
subjects and researchers do not know if subjects are receiving the treatment or placebo
What are some characteristics of a cross-over randomized trial?
control group crosses over to the treatment group usually with a "washout group" and order of conditions is random
small group discussion using questions, moderator leads discussion + field notes and audio tape
individual interview using questions, interviewer conducts interview and notes + audio taped
What are some characteristics of good questions?
open-ended, easy, clear, short, one-dimensional, sound conversational
field work or field observation for extended period of time is also known as
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