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EASCI Exam 1 study guide part 1
Terms in this set (65)
1.Tendency of a mineral to break along planes of weak bonding_____
2.An aggregate of one or more minerals_______
3. The most abundant element found in the Earth's crust______
4. The hardest mineral on Moh's scale______
5. The color of a mineral in its powdered form ______
6. Mineral comprised entirely of silicon and oxygen_____
7. The most abundant mineral (or mineral group) found in the Earth's crust_____
8. Mineral often called "fool's gold"_____
9. The external expression of a mineral that reflects the orderly internal arrangement of its atoms_____
10. Purple quartz ____
11. The second most abundant element found in the Earth's crust _____
12. The softest mineral on Moh's scale _____
13. A naturally occurring, inorganic substance, with definite chemical composition and specific arrangement of atoms _____
14. The appearance of light reflected from the surface of a mineral_____
15. Diamond and graphite are both composed of this element _____
16. The resistance of a mineral to scratching _____
17. Relates to a minerals weight _____
18. Galena is an ore of _____
19. CaCo2 _____
Diamond and graphite are both made of carbon. What is it that makes the physical properties of these two minerals so different?
1.) They have a different crystal form. In both, carbon is joined by covalent bonds but in graphite the carbon atoms form sheets that are weakly bonded together. In diamond, the carbon forms a three dimensional framework.
Which is the hardest mineral out of the following?
T/F Quartz has a distinct crystal form but it does not have cleavage
List three ways you can distinguish gold from pyrite
1.) Streak test- pyrite is dark greenish to black
2.) Streak test- gold is yellow
3.) Harness- Moh's hardness scale
To determine specific gravity, the weight of a mineral is compared to the weight of an equal volume of _____________________.
T/F Quartz will scratch fluorite but fluorite will not scratch quartz
If a mineral has a specific gravity of 8, how would this compare with a mineral that has a specific gravity of 4?
The mineral of 4 will have an average weight while the mineral of 8 will have a heavier weight.
True - False: In general, dark colored minerals tend to be lighter in weight than light colored minerals.
Which below best explains why tiny crystals of common table salt (that pour from a shaker) have a cubic shape? a. the crystal form of salt b. the specific gravity of salt c. the cleavage of salt d. the hardness of salt e. the streak color of salt
a. the crystal form
True - False All silicate minerals contain oxygen and silicon
What mineral has this rhombic cleavage?
1. An extrusive igneous rock with no crystals (no grains) _____
2. Grows downward from the ceiling in a cave _____
3. The first mineral to crystallize in a magma chamber ____
4. Molten rock at the earth's surface _____
5. Sedimentary rock composed of the smallest clastic particles _____
6. Most abundant intrusive igneous rock _____
7. Broken particles of another rock _____
8. Marble and limestone are composed of this mineral _____
9. The process by which sediment becomes sedimentary rocks _____
10. Molten rock at great depths beneath the surface _____
11. A sedimentary rock called an evaporate ___
12. Most abundant extrusive igneous rock _____
13. The last mineral to crystallize in a magma chamber _____
14. The smallest clastic particles are _____
15. An igneous rock with two distinctly different grain (crystal) sizes _____
16. Most caves and caverns are formed in this rock _____
17. Sedimentary rock composed of the largest clastic particles _____
18. A general term for any igneous rock that forms at or near the surface _____
19. A general term for any igneous rock that forms deep underground _____
If an igneous rock is entirely composed of large grains (crystals), what two things do you know about it?
1.) It is intrusive
2.) It cooled slowly
Name this rock: "Contains about 50% light colored minerals (mostly feldspar - no quartz) and 50% dark colored minerals. Crystals are interlocking" ___________________
True - False: Igneous rocks that cool quickly at or near the earth's surface have a finegrained texture.
Which below best describes how igneous rocks are classified? a. color b. foliation c. detrital properties d. cleavage and hardness e. texture and composition
e. texture and composition
Explain how an andesite porphyry might form.
High crystallization temperature minerals begin forming below surface and than magma containing the crystals erupts and quickly begins to cool
True - False Plutonic means the same thing as intrusive and volcanic means extrusive
Which of the rocks below would be classified as mafic? Granite Rhyolite Basalt
True - False: Course-grained igneous rocks have crystals that are too small to see.
What causes igneous rocks like rhyolite to be fine-grained and rocks like granite to be coarsegrained?
The rate at which they cool.
Detrital sedimentary rocks are the same as clastic sedimentary rocks. How do the non-clastic (chemical) sedimentary rocks limestone and chert form?
From the precipitation (separating of a solid from a solution) of minerals from ocean water or from the breakdown or the shells and bones of sea creatures.
True - False Sedimentary rocks are exposed at the Earth's surface more than igneous rocks.
How does the energy environment (example, fast flowing stream), relate to the size of the particles deposited?
The larger the particle size the smaller the distance of transportation.
Name a sedimentary rock that formed from sediment in quiet, still, and relatively deep water.
List the three most common natural cements that hold sedimentary rocks together.
2.) Calcium carbonate
3.) Iron oxides
What is travertine and where would you expect to find it? (See your text.)
An inorganic limestone that forms when chemical changes or high water temperatures cause calcium carbonate (calcite) to precipitate . It derives from groundwater and it found in caves.
In the above diagram a. The youngest layer is layer ___________ b. The oldest layer is layer ____________
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