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PSY 262 Exam 2 Study Guide Q's & A's
Terms in this set (32)
Describe stranger and separation anxiety. When do these and occur and why?
Separation anxiety is present when the primary caregiver is about to leave the child and the child becomes very upset, usually crying and clinging on to the person whom they have the familiarity with. Separation anxiety occurs in children because they recognize their caregivers as a person they trust and love, and when they leave, the baby believes almost as if their parents are not coming back, since they are not mature enough to understand the concept of time and their still-developing object permanence meaning often times, when their parents leave babies, believe in the well known saying of "Out of sight, out of mind." That their parent somehow disappeared and is not coming back. Separation anxiety usually occurs around the first year and a half-ish. Stranger anxiety often is parallel to separation anxiety when their primary caregiver leaves them in the care of someone they are not familiar causing the infant to become distressed and often their facial expressions display signs of fear and concern. This also occurs around the same time as separation anxiety that being around the first year and half of an infant's life.
Describe social referencing. Give an example.
This occurs when a baby observes how others such as a parent reacts or expressions they make to certain objects and events, especially when they are unfamiliar to the baby. The baby will then act as mirror (social reference) and try to have similar reactions and facial expressions to that specific event or object. This can be seen when parents make the "mmm yummy" reaction to a certain food that encourage the child to try and eat that particular food. Babies read expressions as the parent really liking that particular food and they will try it and the encouragement from parent will they will learn to like that food.
When do most infants develop self-awareness? How is this usually tested?
Most infants develop self-awareness between 15 to 24 months. Self-awareness is usually tested using a mirror to see if the child touches or explores a part of their body shown in the mirror that they should touch indicated by the one performing the test, this shows the child has self-recognition and that they are there on being. Another sign of self-awareness is when the child starts pretending and using first-person language such as I and me.
How did Freud describe the first year and half of development? What behaviors are associated with oral fixation?
Freud described the first year and a half of development in a stage lasting from 0-18 months called the oral stage. The oral stage consists of an infant getting most of its pleasure from their mouth, but can also come from the lips and the tongue. This stage relies heavily on oral stimulation. Sucking and feeding consist of the most significant stimulating activities for the infant during this stage. Behaviors during the oral fixation stage are receptive and aggressive. If an infant is dissatisfied or does not seek enough stimulation or pleasure during this stage they develop an oral fixation behavior that is seen orally receptive personality, which makes the child characterized as suspicious among other traits which lead into adulthood. In which they might suffer from anxiety and have to reduce that by chewing gum or chewing on other objects that can work to reduce that anxiety. Whereas, if an infant is overindulged they can develop an oral aggressive personality. Characteristics in this behavior or personality consist of hostility and optimism. Freud also thought this stage followed into adulthood with activities such as kissing and smoking a cigarette.
How does Erikson describe a child's development during the first year and a half?
Erikson described a child's development during the 0-18 months that of being trust vs. mistrust. His stage focused more on social relationships. Infants learn if they can trust the world (parents & caregivers most likely) to satisfy their basic needs. Needs such as cleanliness, food, comfort (nourishment). They begin to trust the world when these needs are continually and consistently meant. If these needs are not meant or not meant consistently and continually infants might develop a mistrust about the ones that are suppose to care for them.
How do parents foster a sense of trust in infants?
Parents foster a sense of trust early on by forming a secure bond or attachment with the infant. This can include caring and providing for the infant's basic needs continuously and consistently. Overtime the infant will develop trust with their parents.
What factors contribute to the attachment relationship between mother and child?
-Oral stimulation: If the baby is provided in a healthy manner stimulation and pleasure it will most likely deepen the bond between the baby and the mother. Especially during nursing because a postnatal hormone is released which is called oxytocin. Oxytocin makes the mother and the baby feel good (epigenetic). But there can also be possible problems caused within this stage of an oral fixation.
- The idea that attachment is based on conditioning and reinforcement. Conditioning the idea that a learning process happens when a significant stimulus is connected with a seemingly not as significant stimulus that had no meaning (or connection) before conditioning took place. Or that learning is a process at which an action is followed by something desired or something that is unwanted or not desired. Which leads to reinforcement the child is most likely going to repeat a behavior if the action they do is followed by getting the desired response. Whereas, if the action a child does is followed by an unwanted response they will probably not do that action again.
- Body contact ("contact comfort"): Correlates with personality development. Having parents around and present gives an infant comfort that allows them to have the courage to explore. While also being there to provide comfort if something scary happens.
- Consistency & Responsiveness: Important traits for caregivers to have while raising children. Described in Erik Erikson's theory (which focused on social relationships. (trust vs. mistrust)).
- Familiarity (Konrad Lorenz): Imprinting (does not really work on humans though), a sensitive period in humans. A sensitive period is a certain when development is most likely to occur such as language development in early childhood.
-Innate reflexes/sensory abilities (mimicking facial expressions) which help infants connect with their parents' emotions along with developing social skills.
-Preferences mostly for everything that includes their mother.
-Temperament if your child is easy, slow to warm up, or difficult will affect how attachment is formed and developed.
Discuss Mary Ainsworth's "Strange Situation" test. Describe the different attachment relationships Ainworth's discovered. Why is attachment important?
Ainsworth created a test with the purpose to measure an infant's attachment to his or her parent. Due to this experiment being conducted in an unusually, they expected the child's need for their parent to be more significant than in other circumstances. This experiment begins with the parent and child in the room alone for a certain amount of time. The child may explore the room and play with the toys. Then a stranger comes into the room and talks to the parent for a few minutes. After their done talking, the parent leaves the room. The stranger stays with the child providing comfort when needed and tries to play with them. The parent then re-enters the room and the stranger leaves. Ainsworth main objective of this study was to see how the child responded (reacted) and behaviors they exhibited when their parent left and then returned to the room. Based on a child's reactions and behaviors to their parent leaving and returning, Ainsworth categorized them into four different attachment groups (securely attached, insecure ambivalent, insecure avoidant, and disorganized attachment).
Types of attachments and description
-Securely Attachment (65%-70%): A child that exhibits this type of attachment usually played and explored the room with their parent was there, there was also a chance they engaged with the stranger. Often the child was seen describing and showing toys to their parent. They might have been upset when their parent left but were extremely happy when their parent returned to the room. (Parents are consistent & reliable in providing to the physical and emotional needs of the child).
-Insecure ambivalent (10%-15%): A child that exhibits this type of attachment often is suspicious of the situation and even more suspicious of the stranger. The child is most likely clinging to the parent and not exploring the room. Unsurprisingly, when the parent leaves the child becomes very upset. But when the parent returns they often show mixed emotions or are ambivalent. Meaning the child may run up to the parent but after being picked refuse to be consoled or soothed because they are still angry. (Parents don't continually and sensitively provide for the child's needs which causes the child to have anxiety as to who they can trust to provide for them).
-Insecure Avoidant (20%): A child that exhibits this type of attachment will not explore the room much and will ignore the parent. They will also show little to no emotion when the mother leaves and returns. They most likely will act the same way towards the stranger as they did their parent and not explore the room much. They also might try to get away from the parent when they return. (This usually occurs when the child learns they cannot rely on their parents to provide for their needs) (Child becomes independent).
-Disorganized Attachment (10%): A child that exhibits this type of attachment usually responds, copes, and behaves inconsistently when the parent leaves and comes back. They might cry when the parent leaves but then ignore the parent when they return. Or they might approach the parent but then fall to the ground. (This occurs when the children are sent mixed responses from parents when they provide for their needs. Causing the child to have a troublesome time on how to connect or attach to their parents).
Why is attachment important?
-If a child has a secure attachment around the age of 2 they will exhibit behavior that is more happier and less frustrated.
-If a child has avoidant attachment at around the age of 4 they might become under-aroused to autonomic activity.
-By 3rd grade if a child has attachment they will most likely have better social skills and grades. While also having less behavioral problems.
-Attachment type leads into adolescence behavior and responses to situations.
-Attachment in early childhood also relates to the attachment between adults such as the behaviors they display in them.
What is a child's "temperament"? How is it determined? What is the "goodness of fit"?
A child's temperament is inborn traits in children that differ from others in areas such as emotions, activity, and self-regulation (Ex: shyness & aggression). Different from personality traits but can contribute to differences in one child's personality compared to another. Temperament is usually determined by monitoring a child's responses to his or her environment and the people who surround them. "Goodness of Fit" refers to the thought that development is dependent upon the similarity (match) of a child's temperament, environment, and genetics (nature & nurture).
What are the benefits/drawbacks of infant daycare?
-Allows for a child to develop better vocabulary based upon the other kids and adults they are around (positive effects are social).
-Could help children become better communicators based upon having to be engaged in a more social environment that daycare offers (positive effects are social).
-Provides children the opportunity to develop their language and sensorimotor skills through songs played, conversations with not only their peers but also the adults around, and toys that can easily be manipulated by the kids.
- Caregivers are trained and patient which can encourage kids' morale and enthusiasm to learn while also engage and guiding kids to achieve certain skills such as problem-solving skills.
- Negative effects of daycare often relate to their emotional states such as separation and stranger anxiety.
- Since the child will not be spending as much time with their parents when they get dropped off, parents might miss out on quality time spent with their child, as well as big milestones. If the parents are sending their child to daycare for 20 hours or more this might indicate or cause a weaker attachment between the child and their parents.
- An idea that has not been proven suggests that daycare might be causing children to have more aggression and disobedience.
- Exposure to bad behavior from other children may encourage or cause your child to try to model their behavior off of them, especially if they have a liking towards the child who was expressing that bad behavior.
Start of Chp 8 & 9 Questions
Describe the characteristics of brain development during the play years. How do these changes contribute to changes in thoughts, emotions and motor skills?
- Limbic system: emotional regulation and memory
- Cerebellum: Motor skills dramatically develop over the play years instead of falling down and being caught when children are playing around the age of 2-3, when they get around the age of 4-5 they are able to sidestep or perform sport moves.
- Corpus Callosum: hemispheric specialization
- Cerebral Cortex: reasoning & planning
-Motor skills develop heavily during the play years by improving in the fine and gross motor while also increasingly getting better at motor skills such as drawing and buttoning. The change that happens is that the child improves with their motor skills during this period.
- Emotions are being more controlled and the reactions that children may have to these emotions are also becoming more controlled because they are learning how to regulate them. This can be seen in rough and tumble play the children know they're just pretending so they are regulating their other emotions madness or angriness to not be present because they know it's not for real.
- Thoughts become more developed such as in imaginative play they are planning how they are going to act what they are imagining. If they are doing imaginative with others they express reasons on why they are doing it that way to hopefully encourage the other to want to do it that way too.
Define child maltreatment. What are the consequences of maltreatment?
Child maltreatment is harm that is done to anyone under the age of 18 years old intentionally that puts them in danger (that could be avoidable). Child maltreatment includes both child abuse which is actions that are harmful to a child's physical, emotional, and sexual being, and child neglect which is the inability to meet a child's needs.
Consequences of maltreatment
- Can last for a person's whole life (decades) (trauma)
- Scared to fail in school and to communicate (fear, especially present in children who suffered from child abuse).
-Deficits in social skills and self-esteem
- Children who suffered from maltreatment often find it hard to trust anyone.
-Children who have suffered from maltreatment often find it hard to form friendships because they believe other people are hostile, which in turn make them act less friendly and more aggressive towards other.
- The longer and worse maltreatment such sexual abuse cause to likely be withdrawn and angry.
- Children who have suffered from maltreatment often hate themselves.
Discuss the debate over potty training children. When do children usually develop this skill? What can parents do to encourage control?
Due to the limited information offered on this debate, from what I know from the article and the statistics provided, I believe the main idea of this debate is over how much a parent should insert their dominance in this situation (unrealistic expectations, pressure, and control) and how much they should let the kid decide when they should make the transition from diapers to the toilet. Too much pressure and control from the parent can cause the child to become an anal-retentive adult who is controlling and a perfectionist. But not enough guidance and too much control for the child can also cause a child not to develop control over the bladder and bowel movements between the ages of 1-3 years, which according to Freud could cause an anal personality in adulthood. Children usually develop the skill of controlling their bladder and bowel movements by 22-30 months (2 to 2.5 years). To encourage this control parents can offer positive support and encouragement. While also letting it develop naturally without putting too much pressure or expectations on the child. They can also but the portable potty in the child's line of sight so the child can see where to go the "bathroom". Give rewards so the child reinforce the behavior of going to the bathroom.
Describe the characteristics of Piaget's preoperations stage of cognitive development. What marks the beginning and end of this stage?
- Children start to think symbolically and learn to use words and pictures to represent objects. That marks the start of the of the preoperational stage.
- Children at this stage are often egocentric and struggle to understand the point of view of others.
- Often children learn through pretend play at this stage.
- Symbolic thought at this stage often explains animism which is when children think inanimate objects have feelings.
- Inability to see other ideas because they are so focused on one (centration) is a charasteric of preoperational thought. For example, mommy can't be an aunt because she is only a mother.
- Children seem to focus on appearance at this time too which is a characteristic of preoperational thoughts This is where kids ignore all characteristics that are not apparent. For example, a male kid might think he has turned into a girl because he has longer hair. This is because in this stage a thing is what it appears to be.
- Another characteristic of this stage is static reasoning in which a child believes that nothing ever changes. That what they hold to be true won't change now or ever. For example, it is hard for a child to imagine that their parents were once children too.
- Another characteristic of the preoperational stage is that a kid does not understand the concept of irreversibility. This is when a young child believes something can not be undone. Such as a child not wanting to eat a hamburger because his mother put tomatoes on it. But still refusing to eat it even after he saw his mother take them off because he still believes that, that can not be undone.
- Another characteristic of the preoperational stage of cognitive thinking is children's lack of conservation. Conservation means that certain properties of an object may change (like shape), while others remain the same (like volume). To test this Piaget used different shapes of glasses one wider or longer than the normal one and asked if there was the same amount of water in those two glasses. If the child said there was he considered this a success and that they are out of the preoperational stage of cognitive development. Failure to recognize this means they weren't. Once they succeed in this task, this is known as the end of the preoperational stage.
Implications of the preoperational stage
- Seriation: Ability to put objects in ascending and descending order.
- Classification: Able to classify objects by a specific characteristic.
- Nominal Realism: Belief that objects are fixed by a physical trait.
- Dangerous behavior (still struggling with if-then scenarios).
- Math/Money: Referring to every coin as the same one. Children don't understand the value of them.
What is "theory of mind"? How does it change in preschool children?
A theory of mind is what children believe others (their peers ) could be thinking. To obtain a theory of mind children must understand that their peers thoughts and ideas might not be the same to what they, themselves are thinking. This can be a hard concept to learn for younger children since they not only have to sort through their own thoughts and ideas but they have to also try to come up with ideas (theories) to how others would think while also realizing it might or might not be the same to what they, themselves have came up with. Most three year old's and younger fail at the theory of mind this could be due to the fact they might still have some grasp on the egocentrism concept. Or they might understand part of the concept of theory of mind but are unable to put it all together. By the ages of 5-6 children understand that emotions and thoughts can be hidden. The theory of mind can be tested because the development can be seen when young children try to lie so they will not get in trouble. Most 3 years old either tell the truth or they tell lies that are not actually possible. 4 year old's told lies that were a little more believable but also not extremely likely. Whereas, 5 year old's told lies that could actually of happened and make sense. The theory of mind develops throughout the preschool years and beyond, the older the child gets the more of an understanding of theory of mind they are going to have.
What happens to language development during the preschool years? Describe the holophrases and telegraphic speech.
Since early childhood is a sensitive period for language development children soak up every verbal drop they encounter. Meaning their vocabulary explodes during the preschool years. As children work through their preschool years their vocab becomes bigger, their sentence become longer, their grammar is developing to include more rules, and their questions become more detailed. A concept present is fast mapping where a child learns a new word and puts into their own mental category, rather finding out when they are actually suppose to use that particular word. For instance a child calling their teacher mom because they are female and providing care for them is an example of fast mapping. Logical extension also develops during this period where after a child learns a word they use it to describe other objects that are in the same category. For example, the Dalmatian cow because the kid just petted a Dalmatian dog before and they have similar spots. A holophrase is a single word such as no that is used to complete a meaningful thought. An utterance of one word produced by a child that conveys the same type of meaning that an adult uses in an entire sentence. Telegraphic speech is a stage in which a child speaks like a telegram, "go bus", usually mostly noun and verbs and omitting other types of words.
Why does overgeneralization (over-regulation) occur? Is this a concern for parents? Why or why not?
Children apply grammar rules as soon as they figure them out, even if they apply them wrong. A young child's grammar is often based off in what situation rules should be applied and why. Like adding s to the end of a word to make it plural. So children might apply the rules of grammar when they actually should not. Saying phrases like, "my foots hurt" or "look at my foots" or goed. No, this is not a concern for parents because it shows knowledge that your child is aware of applying grammatical rules although they might not be using them in the correct way, they are still getting in practice with applying them. Through experience and listening to other people talk the child will develop the correct usage of grammatical skills.
What is the significance of the MLU? Why is it important?
MLU means mean length of utterance which is the average length of sentences a child uses. For example, " "yes" has an MLU of 1. MLU is typically measured in morphemes meaning if you divide a word or sentence up into parts can it have more than one meaning. For example, a child saying "my snack" a child is using two morphemes. But if a child just says, "snack" they are just using one morpheme because it can not be divide and still have meaning. To further explain if a child says, "my snacks" they are using three morphemes "my" "snack" "s". MLU is significant because it works almost as a measuring device for adults to see how their child's language development, such as putting words into sentences is coming along and if they is any delays or causes for worry. MLU is important because it can show a parent or an adult where a child is at in language development and how close they are to the next, while also showing how much a child is linguistically complex. Meaning if a child uses one morpheme they are not as linguistically complex as a child who use multiple morphemes.
Describe Vygotsky's theory of language development.
*The first stage which is called the primitive stage is when the baby is experimenting with coos and babbling. This phase lacks the connection between what is coming out of their mouth and their thoughts.
*The second stage is the naïve stage and this is where babies learn to talk. But they do not really understand the meaning they are trying to put on the word. They will say something like a cat. Which could mean, "where is the cat", "I want the cat". Through time the child will give more complex phases like, "cat now" not fully understanding grammar yet. But the sense of meaning from these words comes from how others react to what they are saying.
* The third stage is called the external stage. This stage is thought to be the start of a child's verbalization of thought. Egocentric thought is also apparent at this stage. A child uses objects to signify meaning with words. Such as using toys.
* The last stage is called the ingrowth stage where children start to internalize their thoughts. Such as counting in their head instead of using their fingers.
- Vygotsky's theory of language development also involved a social concept.
- Vygotsky believed that thought and language are initially separated systems at the beginning of a child's life but then eventually come together and create verbal thoughts.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of learning two languages in childhood?
Advantages of learning two languages in childhood
- Benefit the brain lifelong which further the evidence of plasticity.
-May provide resistance to neurocognitive disorders such as Alzheimer's disease.
- Improved reasoning
-Faster, more efficient processing
- Retain more cognitive function longer
Disadvantages of learning two languages in childhood
- Child not knowing what their primary language is especially when the adults use both languages when communicating with them.
- Fewer relationships or friendships because some people view ones that can speak multiple languages as different or weird.
- Might cause confusion especially in school, when the teacher uses one language if they are not completely immersed in both languages.
- Immersion of both languages is needed for it to be effective.
- Mixing of the languages together instead of speaking one in entirety.
Describe the different types of play. How does play contribute to development?
- Solitary: This occurs when a child plays alone.
- Onlooker: This occurs when a child acts as an audience to the other children playing.
- Parallel: This occurs when children's way of playing is similar yet they are not actually playing together.
- Associative: This occurs when children are somewhat playing with each other (interaction) but are not sharing the objects either one is playing with.
- Cooperative: This occurs when children interact and play with each other along with being fair (taking turns) and sharing (objects or toys).
-Play can be divided into two kinds: solitary pretend play and social play.
Rough- and- Tumble
*: Just as the name applies this type of play looks rough and the children playing with each other seem to fall over one another. Note that this wrestling and grabbing of one another is just pretending and that is communicated through the facial expressions and signals children make. This type of play contributes to the development of the limbic system connecting more strongly with the prefrontal cortex. Studies have shown boys who played roughly but made sure to be careful with peers and parents, finds that, that child becomes caring and compassionate throughout their life.
**: This is pretend play in which children act out their own roles, themes, and plots in which they created. Sociodramatic play only develops social skills when children allow other children to contribute to the "play" and also act out the others' ideas too, along with their own. When children do combine their ideas (imagination) with others they advance their theory of mind. This type of play contributes to the development of the emotional regulation by practicing different emotions out such as anger, communication skills by sharing their ideas with the other child.
How does play contribute to development?
- Play contributes to development significantly, areas such as social skills, emotional regulation, and empathy. Physical play helps develop good physical fitness, agility, balance, etc. Activities such as swimming, running and riding a bike.
Briefly describe the various theories of gender or gender role development in children. (psychoanalytic, behaviorism/learning, cognitive, and epigenetic).
*Psychoanalytic: Freud believed in the phallic stage the male child around the age of 3-4 will be aware of their penis. Thus they develop a sexual attraction toward their mother and want to possess her, therefore the child develops hatred towards their father. This could be seen as a gender role having a significant other of the opposite sex. But they soon realize they identify more with the same-sex parent. Thus they start mimicking their father. Gender identity: Is established by the male child acting like their parent. The same can be said about girls they develop a sexual attraction towards their father and hatred towards the mother because the female child was not born with a penis. However, the female does realize their mother does not have a penis and that they do not either. Overtime female children will learn they identify more with their mother and will start mimicking their actions. And their penis jealousy will turn into womb want which can be seen as females accepting their gender role of reproduction.
*Behaviorism/Learning: These people believe that all roles, values, and morals are learned. Gender distinctions result from being reinforced, punished, and social learning. Gender differentiation is basically pushed onto children most time without the parents being aware of it. Such as parents usually talk about more shapes with male children that can be a reason why males are more interested in math when they become older. Or fathers singing and talking more towards their female kids and using words one would use in sports such as achievement and win. The social learning theory idea is that people base themselves off on what they perceive as nurturing, powerful, and similar to themselves, happens through modeling and reinforcement, and gender roles are socialized. Children learn gender roles from their parents that can be a reason why they might exhibit sexism. Such children will follow the examples their family portrays. Since parents are gender-typed the most when raising children according to the social learning theory children are also gender-typed.
*Cognitive: This theory suggests children develop gender schema which basically is their own idea of the differences between male and female. Children view the world through their own ego and simple terms, so therefore they view males and females as opposites. Almost everything such as clothes can be spilt one for female and one for male. Children's internal locus of control. They themselves perceive their own theories on genders.
*Epigenetic: Genes interact with experiences to produce differences in both physical and personality traits. Gender roles appear early in development and across most cultures. Evolution has contributed to a continuum of differences in "male" and "female" strategies/behaviors.
According to Freud, what happens during the phallic stage of development? How is it resolved? Discuss any criticisms of this development.
According to Freud the phallic stage, which occurred around the ages of 3-6 or maybe 7, is when children develop a sexual attraction for the opposite sex parent. This for boys is known as the Oedipus complex which is Greek but means that the male child has grown a sexual attraction towards their mother and wanted to have them and for that reason, they have hatred for their father because they feel as though they are in competition with them. They also fear that they would be in trouble for having these feelings and be punished for it (castration anxiety). For female children, this is known as the Electra complex, which means the female child develops a sexual attraction for their father and hates their mother but for different reasons. They hate their mother because she does not have a penis and the child is also mad at her for her not having a penis either (jealousy). Freud believed this lasted later in life too such as a male marrying a woman like his mother.
How is it resolved
- Freud thought when in both of these complexes, the child begins to identify with the same-sex parent they then will be able to get over the conflict of the phallic stage. Males repress their feeling for their mother and start mimicking their father, therefore they develop "manlily" characteristics. For females, also repress their feelings and turn penis envy into womb envy. Meaning they want to have a baby. Through this process, they start mimicking their mothers as a result they start to develop feminine characteristics.
- Psychodynamic theory is unscientific and difficult to test anyways. (which includes the phallic stage).
- The phallic stage almost entirely focuses on understanding the development of men with very little description of a female's development.
- The idea of penis envy can alarm and upset many people.
- His belief that if a male is only raised by his mother it will result in that male child being gay or bi.
Describe the different types of aggression displayed by preschool children.
-Instrumental aggression: Which is behavior that is hurtful and is directed when a child is trying to gain something that another possess. Like a toy. Usually starts at age 2 and lasts up to the age of 6 it's more regarding objects and being aggressive to get them.
- Reactive aggression: An impulse or temptation to retaliate against another who performed a harmful or hurtful action to them, whether intentional or not. More of a characteristic of two-year-olds because they are not able to handle their emotions properly.
-Relational aggression: Insults and social rejection that aim to hurt the one receiving it and their relationships with other people if it gets spread around. Like not playing with one particular kid because he is weird and telling others not to play with him based on the same reason (non-physical).
- Bullying aggression: Physical or verbal attacks on others who most likely will not defend themselves. To keep this from getting out of hand parents should stop bullying behavior before kindergarten because from then on it can become a lot more destructive.
Describe the two psychosocial tasks that Erikson believed were important during the preschool years.
The two psychosocial tasks that Erikson believed were important during the preschool years were
autonomy vs. shame/doubt
initiative vs. guilt
. Autonomy vs. shame/doubt is Erikson's second stage of psychosocial development where children start to express themselves more as individuals (independence) and that they can have a different opinion. Children start to develop a sense of self-control and not be entirely dependent on their parents. Children start to learn how to do things for themselves. This is important in the preschool years because they start to have a toy preference, pick out their own clothes and food they want to wear and eat. Completion of this stage allows helps children in social and academic skills. If children do not gain this sense of autonomy they most likely will feel shame and doubt within themselves. Children will also probably feel a little inadequate and start to doubt their own abilities. They will definitely struggle compared to those who have seemingly passed this so-called stage. Initiative vs. guilt which is Erikson's third stage of psychosocial development where children start taking control over parent-like decisions such as what friends to play with and activities to engage in. Children start asserting their control over situations and making decisions themselves by taking the initiative to do that. Unsurprisingly these kids are very adventurous because they understand they can take the initiative of it. Whereas, if a child can not develop initiative may have a fear to try new things and if they do they might think they are doing something wrong. This may lead children to give up when they make a mistake because they view that as bad. This would be important in preschool years especially in activities such as deciding what snack they want or which kid they want to be friends with.
How do parents encourage a healthy development at each of these stages?
Autonomy vs. shame/doubt:
- Provide child with opportunities to be independent.
- Praise the child for the action and not the result.
- Offer support during events that occur during this stage such as potty training try to stop yourself from dishing out punishments for accidents made.
- Offer children a safe environment to do these activities.
- Respect the child's opinions meaning listening to them even if you disagree. Listening helps the child develop their sense of autonomy.
- Only offer feedback on what they are doing when it is needed.
Initiative vs. guilt:
- Encourage children to keep trying even if they made a mistake or failed.
- Offer a modeling experience for them to base their own actions off.
- Act as a therapist and listen and encourage them to open about challenges and why they made a certain decision.
- Use modeling and reinforcement to encourage good choices.
Describe the various parenting styles recorded by Diana Baumrind.
- Authoritarian parenting (Too Hard): Leaves the parent in control and their words being concrete and not questioned. Breaking rules or doing something out of the norm that goes against what they believe is right comes with punishment to the child that is usually significant (such as physical). Rules are stated and set and these parents expect the most out of their child and expect them to meet not only their own standards but also theirs. Any kind of display of emotional expressions is not common in this parenting style.
- Permissive parenting (Too Soft): Could be described as easy-going parents because what they demand of their child is not much. These parents don't hold earth-shattering expectations. If discipline is given it often is not severe. These parents are very nurturing, accepting, and make for a very good companion.
- Authoritative parenting(Just Right): This type of parenting is the middle ground between authoritarian and permissive parents. These parents have rules (limits) they also understand that things happen and sometimes rules and limits are broken, so they can have enough open-mindedness to listen to their child. Hope punishment can be used to see that what they did was wrong (understand) and know to do things differently in the future.
Was not described by Baumrind but by other researchers
- Neglectful/ uninvolved parenting: This kind of parent doesn't really notice their child's behavior because they are not really paying attention to them, therefore their child can get away with pretty much anything. Neglectful parents do not care about their child which is unlike permissive parents who care.
Describe the types of children correlated with each parenting style. Why is the authoritative style the best?
Authoritarian parents: Children who were raised with these kinds of parents are extremely obedient and quiet. They can lack happiness. These children usually are so within themselves and whenever they do something wrong they blame themselves. This can lead to a period of rebellion into the teenage and young adult years. Unsurprisingly these children when older often exhibit the same traits as their parents used when raising them. Bad social skills and are usually aggressive.
- Permissive Parents: Children who were raised with these kinds of parents usually lack control of themselves and don't know how to handle their emotions. These children to lack happiness. Children raised by these parents usually find difficulty with having friendships because they can not handle their emotions (poor social skills).
- Authoritative Parents: Children who were raised with these kinds of parents tend to be successful, happy, and helpful to those who surround them. They are usually very liked by others, not only others their age but adults too.
Why is authoritative style the best?
-Authoritative parenting style is the best because it allows the child to be heard and learn from their mistakes. While also allowing the parents to set guidelines and dish out punishment when the child breaks the limit or rule. The punishment serves as a way for the child to understand what they did wrong and know that they should do something differently next time. This parenting style allows the child to feel cared for but also know that there is going to be punishment when wrongdoing occurs. But since the line of communications is open and the child and parent can discuss the punishment, communication in this parenting style is excellent. This allows the child to have a sense of responsibility and self-control, while also having a sense of mortality. Consistency = sense of self-control and responsibility. Responsiveness = a sense of mortality that is a bad behavior is going to be punished in all situations.
Note might not need to know
- Neglectful/ uninvolved parents: Children who have these kinds of parents are usually immature and sad. They have a higher chance of committing self-harm throughout their life.
What are some drawbacks to using punishment? What can parents do to eliminate some of these problems?
-Drawbacks from using physical punishment (corporal punishment) include a child becoming bullies, later on, delinquency, and more likely abusive in any kind of relationship they have later on.
- Spanking children can possibly lead to that child being aggressive and that correlation has been found in all ethnic groups. Can lead to the child being fearful and aggressive.
- Psychological control which is a disciplinary technique that plays the child's emotions by a parent threatening to withdraw love or support. This kind of discipline could lead to a child developing very concerning emotions such as depression and sadness).
- Behavioral change that parents believe they see as a result of their punishment is most likely temporary and the child just pretending so they could get out of that particular punishment faster.
- Punishment does not offer an alternative way for a child to act in the situation they are being punished for rather it just reinforces they shouldn't act the way they did.
- Parents should consider that the effects of their so-called punishment have on the future life of their child. It might seem like it is having a positive effect as a child but what if it causes negative traits and problems while they grow up throughout life.
- Consquence that diminishes and suppress a behavior but fails to teach alternative behaviors.
What can parents do to eliminate some of these problems?
- Try alternative forms of methods of punishment that might not have the chance of having such severe drawbacks. Punishments such as time-out and induction.
- Offering alternatives ways they could have acted that would not have caused them to get in trouble in that particular situation.
- Make the punishment something (personal) that really would cause them to change their behavior over time and not in a temporary way. Such as taking away a toy and not giving it back until they apologize to their sibling and explain what the toy is supposed to actually be used for. I believe over time this will help them realize if they do not use the toy in the right way then they will get taken away from them.
- Maybe not drawing back love and support but communicating a different emotion towards the child. Such as saying when you do that you know that makes mommy sad or angry, this might show the kid that their action their doing is provoking a negative emotion in their parent.
- Maybe parents offering a reason to the child as to why they are being punished could be a way that could help with no long-term effects of punishment. I think this kind of elimination of this particular problem will cause the parents to display some creativity because I think it will only work if they say it in a way that a child can understand and relate to.
Why does Judith Rich Harris feel that parents have little influence on their child's development?
Judith Rich Harris feels that parents have little influence on their child's development, she believes they can only influence the environment in child experience socialization with others and places. She believes their peers have more influence on them because children seem to be more attracted to others just like them, the same age sex, and thus they develop more of their behaviors from the world they share with their peers. Children are trying to be successful children not adults like the parents are trying to develop them into. Although she does recognize that parents can contribute to development. Parenting styles are not consistent meaning your parent might use one style with you and use another with your sibling. Correlations amongst development show that maybe parents do not have as much influence on their child. Such as the fact that good parents might still have a bad child even if they tried their best to instill good values. Parenting style does not have much to do with if a child is good meaning they could just be genetically good. Parents do matter but not as much as we think in terms of parenting styles.
What are some potential problems with screen time in early years?
- Related to obesity because more screen time leads the child to be less active naturally.
- Cause a child to be addicted to it and while also ignoring the things going on around them or not reacting to them (passive).
- Child becomes less creative because increased screen-time reduces imagination.
- Might cause a child to have a shorter attention span because they are so addicted to looking at the screen.
- Might make the child become deceived on what the real world is like not just the one presented on the T.V.
- Violent programming can model and reinforce violence as something "good". It also somewhat desensitizes it to the young children. Or it can have the opposite effect and scare the child.
What are the AAP recommendations? Why? What can parents and caregivers do to minimize these problems?
- No screens before 18 months.
- No more than 1 hour of screen time for children aged 2-5 years.
- 6 year old children can have some more time but no screen time an hour before bedtime.
- Never let children watch programs or play games that include violence and sexual media. Along with any programs or games that show stereotypes.
- Always watch with the child (high quality programming).
***Note all these recommendation are intended to reduce the negative effects of overstimulation of screen-time.
Minimizing these problems
- Limit the amount of screen-time as much as possible.
- Monitoring the content of the tv shows and games that children play.
- Parents should encourage watching programs and games that provide education and are not violent.
- Encourage your child to evaluate morals and ethics of a tv program or game. Asking questions such as what they would do in a particular situation or hypothetical situation.
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Key Concepts Quiz 1
Name and explain two brain abnormalities that help us understand schizophrenia.
Which of the following is best described along a continuum ranging from ruthless and suspicious to helpful and trusting? a. Conscientiousness. b. Agreeableness. c. Openness. d. Extraversion. e. Neuroticism.
Which of the following is an example of a social-cultural influence on aggressive behavior? a. Exposure to violent media. b. Frustration. c. Testosterone. d. Believing you’ve drunk alcohol. e. Genetics.
a. What contributes to the stress experienced by many high school students? b. Why can positive life changes produce stress? c. Think of a character in television, movies, or fiction who exemplifies the type B personality. How does this character demonstrate type B behavior?