1. Confronted with an event in which you experienced trauma
3. Re-experiencing the trauma - through flashbacks - usually triggered by something
4. Reduced responsiveness (detached, dissociation, derealization, diminished interest in activities, sense of foreshortened future)
5. Increased arousal, negative emotions, and reactivity
(Difficulty falling or staying asleep, Irritability or outbursts of anger, Difficulty concentrating, Hyper-vigilance, Exaggerated startle response)
True. Various genetic studies have linked bipolar dis- orders to possible gene abnormalities on chro- mosomes 1, 4, 6, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15, 18, 21, and 22.