HESI Anatomy

Which of the following is defined as "a group of similar cells and their intercellular matrix that carry out a specific function together?"
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Which organelle is responsible for regulating the transport of substances in and out of the cell?Cell membraneWhat is the function of the rough endoplasmic reticulum?To assist in protein synthesisThe Golgi apparatus is an organelle involved in which of the following cell functions?Packaging and transporting proteins and lipids throughout the cell.What is present in the nucleus?DNAWhat is the definition of Histology?the study of cells and tissues of plants and animalsWhich of the following parts of an animal cell helps in the synthesis of proteins?RibosomesWhich of the following cells have star-like shape?StellateWhat type of animal tissue is composed of neurons and neuroglia?NervousWhat form of animal tissue reacts to stimuli as well as conducts impulses to and from all parts of the body?NervousWhich of the following best describes the anatomical position?Standing upright, facing the observer, upper extremities at the body's sides, feet flat and directed forward, and the palms facing anteriorlyIn which body cavity would you find the esophagus?ThoracicThe internal reproductive organs are located in which of the following anatomical regions?PelvicWhere would you find the occipital lobe?HeadWhich plane divides the body into left and right sides?SagittalWhich of the following is located in the thoracic cavity?The mediastinumWhich structure lies between the thoracic and abdominal cavities?DiaphragmWhich part of the body is also known as the lumbar region?Lower backOn which surface of the body are the buttocks located?DorsalWhat direction is the spine, in relation to the sternum?PosteriorWhen describing a direction in relation to a limb, which of the these is considered closest to the point of attachment?ProximalWhich of the following is not included in the abdominal cavity?Spinal cordThe heart is _________ to the spine.anteriorIn regard to the respiratory system, the larynx is ____________ to the trachea.SuperiorIf you were to cut the body through the median plane, what type of sectioning would occur?Sagittal sectionThe diaphragm is _________ to the lungs.InferiorThe pancreas is __________ to the stomach.posteriorWhich of the following means "away from the midline"?LateralWhich of the following is the opposite of the anatomical term posterior?PosteriorWhich layer of the skin provides protection from infection and outside elements?EpidermisIn what area of the body would you expect to find especially thick stratum corneum?Heel of the footWhich of the following options correctly lists the layers of the epidermis from the most superficial to the deepest layer?Stratum corneum, stratum lucidum, stratum granulosum, stratum germinativumWhich of the following gives skin its color?MelaninWhich structure in the epidermis is responsible for cooling the body to maintain temperature homeostasis?Eccrine glandsWhich exocrine gland produces sweat on the epidermal surface?EccrineEccrine glands secrete a watery substance onto the surface of the skin to maintain temperature homeostasis through which process?EvaporationWhat is the function of the sebaceous glands?To secrete oil that lubricates the skin and prevents dryingWhich of the following glands secrete earwax?CeruminousCerumen is secreted by apocrine glands located in which of the following structures?The external auditory canalA patient who is on a plant-based diet complains that their skin is appearing to take on a yellowish color. Which of the following foods would you expect the patient to have eaten a large amount of?CarrotsWhich of the following types of cancer would present warning signs that are identified using the ABCDE method?MelanomaWhat is the most easily identifiable form of skin cancer?Basal cell carcinomaWhich of the following is a symptom of viral herpes?Skin eruptionExposure to sunlight causes the skin to synthesize vitamin D, which helps to maintain levels of which of the following?Calcium and phosphateWhat is the name of the pigment that is found in the basal layer of the epidermis?MelaninWhat is the principal function of the integumentary system?protection, thermoregulation, Vitamin D synthesis, water retention, cutaneous sensation, and nonverbal communication.Which of the following is an appendage of the skin?HairStratum basale and stratum spinosum are included in which layer of the epidermis?Stratum germinativumWhat connects skin to superficial muscles?DermisWhich of the following is composed of keratin?HairWhat is the outermost layer of the epidermis?Stratum corneumWhat is the inner layer of the skin that is composed of fibrous tissues?DermisMitosis occurs in which layer of the skin?Stratum germinativumWhich glands release an oily secretion through the hair follicles that lubricates the skin and prevents drying?Sebaceous glandsAll of the following are small bones, except _______.FemurThe ethmoid is included in which of the following?craniumHow many nasal bones are present in the face?2The clavicle is a part of the ___________.Upper portion of appendicular skeletonWhich of the following is not a bone of the ear?HumerousThe vertebral column is divided into how many sections?5Which of the following is known as the tailbone?Coccygeal vertebraeHow many thoracic vertebrae are there in a vertebral column?12Which of the following is not included in the facial bones?Meta tarsalsWhich of the following is not included in the bones of the cranium?NasalAnkle bones are called which of the following?TarsalsWrist bones are called which of the following?CarpalsWhich of the following is not the part of the upper portion of the appendicular skeleton?Pelvic girdleHow many sacral vertebrae are present in the vertebral column?5Which of the following are structures known as the ossicles?Incus, stapes, malleusLimbs are part of which of the following?Appendicular skeletonThe lower portion of appendicular skeleton consists of which of the following?Os coxaeWhich of the following is a part of the appendicular skeleton?GirdlesThe skull is comprised of how many bones?22Which type of bone has a curved surface?RamusThe kneecap is known as which of the following?PatellaWhich of the following best describes a bone with a shallow depression?FossaThe largest vertebrae of the spinal column are known as ______________.Lumbar vertebraeWhich vertebrae fuse to form the sacrum?Sacral vertebraeWhich of the following is not a bone of the lower extremities?UlnaWhich of the following is not a paired bone of the cranium?OccipitalThe sternum is a part of which of the following?Axial skeletonAn irregular epiphysis at each end is present in which of the following?A typical long boneWhich of the following is not true about the mandible bone?Facial bones consist of two mandible bonesDetoxification is a function carried out by the skeletal system of the body. What does it involve?Removal of poisonsAll except which of the following is located superior to the maxilla bone?MandibleWhen osteoblasts become fixed in a dense bone matrix, they continue to maintain bone tissue as which of the following?OsteocytesWhich of the following is not classified as a shape of a bone?CircularWhat of the following is not true about osteoblasts?These are the cells from a cancellous boneIndividual bones are classified by ________.shapeBones, cartilage, ligaments, and joints are all part of which of the following?Body frameworkWhich of the following is an element of the body's framework?CartilageBlood cell formation performed by the skeletal system is called ________?HemopoiesisWhat is the function of coracobrachialis muscle?Adducts the arm at the shoulderWhich of the following supplies energy to the filaments, so that they can slide together to produce contraction?Adenosine triphosphateWhere is the mentalis muscle located?Middle of the mandibleCalcium ions attach to inhibitory proteins on which of the following?Actin filamentsWhich of the following releases calcium ions upon receiving nervous stimulation from the motor neurons?Sarcoplasmic reticulumWhich muscle is located from the anterior superior iliac spine to the medial tibia and is responsible for flexing the leg at the knee?SartoriusWhich muscle is located from the maxilla and zygomatic arch to the angle and to the ramus of the mandible and its function is to close the mouth?MasseterAdductors return ________ toward the body.LimbWhich muscle is located from ribs 5-12 to the iliac crest and linea alba and is responsible for flexing the vertebral column?External abdominal obliqueWhere is the corrugator supercilii muscle located?Above the superciliary arch of the frontal boneWhat, in addition to adenosine triphosphate, must be present for a muscle to contract?CalciumWhat is the function of extensor muscles?Increase the angle at the jointSkeletal muscle work in pairs. The muscle that executes the given movement is called which of the following?Prime moverWhich of the following muscles pulls a body part away from the midline of the body?AbductorsWhich muscles work in collaboration with the prime movers?SynergistsMuscles contract in response to which of the following?Nervous stimulationWhat is the function of the omohyoid and sternohyoid muscles?Depress the hyoid boneWhich of the following muscles draw the limb away from the midline?AbductorsMyofibrils are made up of which of the following?SarcomeresWhich of the following is made up of smaller units called as sarcomeres?MyofibrilWhat is a function of basophils?Respond to histamine releasing infectionsT-lymphocytes are developed by which of the following glands?ThymusWhich of the following gets absorbed directly into the blood?Amino acidsWhich of the following acts as a store for fats and aids in bone function?Yellow bone marrowWhich white blood cells fight against parasitic infections?EosinophilThe protein that gives color to the red blood cells is known as which of the following?HemoglobinWhat are lymphoid organs?The organs involved with the immune system of the body.Platelets and cell fragments that do not have a nucleus, but help in creating blood clots are called ______________.PlasmaWhich white blood cells are most abundant in our blood?NeutrophilWhich white blood cells are "acidic loving" granulocytes?EosinophilWhich of the following is a function of interneurons?Receive information from the afferent neurons and directs the information through the efferent neurons.Sensory impulses enter which of the following?Dorsal horns of the spinal cordWhich of the following is not a major part of the nervous system?HeartHow many pairs of spinal nerves exit the spinal cord?31Which of the following is a part of the peripheral nervous system, which controls visceral functions that occur below the level of consciousness?Autonomic nervous systemWhich of the following is a function of medulla oblongata?Controls heart rateThe spinal cord is the part of which of the following?Central nervous systemNerve impulses that only travel through the spinal cord and do not reach the brain are called ______________.Simple reflexesWhat is the length of the spinal cord?18 inWhich of the following transmit nerve impulses towards a cell body?DendritesWhich hormone regulates blood pressure?Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)What is secreted by the adrenal glands?Cortisol and aldosteroneThe labor hormone is also known as which of the following?OxytocinThe Growth Hormone is also known as ___________.Somatotropin hormone (STH)Which of the following is a hormone of posterior lobe?Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)Oxytocin is the hormone released from which of the following?NeurohypophysisWhat are tropic hormones?Hormones of the adenohypophysisThe posterior lobe of pituitary glands is called which of the following?NeurohypophysisWhich of the following inhibits the release of histamine?CortisolWhich hormones enter target cells and have a direct effect on the DNA of the nucleus?Steroid hormonesHormones are divided into how many major groups?TwoWhich of the following is not a function of cortisol?Release growth hormonesWhen under stress, the human body releases hormones from which of the following?Adrenal cortexWhere is the thyroid located?At the front of an individual's neckWhich of the following informs the body that it's time to sleep?Pineal glandsWhich of the following produces cortisol, which helps to reduce stress and maintains one's blood pressure?Adrenocorticotropic hormoneThe Hypothalamus controls the ____________ by releasing hormones?Pituitary glandsWhich of the following hormones is not released by hypothalamus?MelatoninWhich of the following is secreted by the thymus?Humoral factorsWhich hormone helps regulate body's water balance?Antidiuretic hormoneThe posterior pituitary gland produces which of the following?OxytocinThe infundibulum attaches which of the following to the pituitary glands?HypothalamusWhich gland releases melatonin?Pineal glandsThe main function of each gland in an endocrine system is which of the following?Hormone productionWhich system coordinates and regulates processes within the body through the use of hormones?Endocrine systemMany protein hormones remain at the cell surface and act through a second messenger, which is usually a substance known as ___________.Adenosine monophosphateThe anterior lobe of pituitary glands is called which of the following?AdenohypophysisGrowth hormones are produced by which of the following?Pituitary glandsWhich of the following hormones act through a second messenger?Protein hormonesWhich of the following is not the principle function of the endocrine system?Acid base balanceBefore the heart muscle can contract, it must receive an electrical signal called a(n) ______________.action potentialWhich of the following blood vessels runs parallel to the carotid artery and is responsible for draining blood from the brain?Jugular veinIn order for blood to be delivered to the body (i.e. the systemic circuit), enough pressure must be developed by the ___________ to push open the ________________.left ventricle; aortic semilunar valveIf the femoral artery was cut, which of the following blood vessels would not receive blood as a result?Popliteal arteryDiastole is the term that describes _________, while systole represents_____________.relaxing and filling; contraction and ejectionOne cardiac cycle is:one heart filling phase and one heart contractionWhich of the following devices measures the electrical activity of the heart?ECGWhen blood is delivered to the body's tissues, the ______________ facilitate the exchange of oxygen and nutrients.capillariesWhich of the following processes involves smooth muscle in the arterial walls controlling blood pressure?vasoconstrictionThe purpose of the __________________ is to supply the myocardium with oxygen and nutrient-rich blood.coronary arteriesWhich of the following blood vessels delivers blood to the lower extremities?iliac arteryThe ________________is located in the upper arm, and is a continuation of the ________________ artery.brachial; axillaryThe primary function of the ________________ is to deliver blood to the brain.carotid arteryWhich blood vessel delivers blood directly into the right atrium?Vena cavaWhich of the following lists the blood vessels in order from largest diameter to smallest diameter?Aorta, arteries, arteriolesWhich of the following is true about veins?Veins have valves.The _________________ carry oxygen rich blood away from the heart, while the ________________ carry oxygen-depleted blood back towards the heart.arteries; veinsWhich of the following features of veins results in the venous system operating at lower pressures than the arterial side?Veins have thinner, more compliant vessel walls than arteries.The heartbeat is initiated by an electrical impulse that originates at the ____________.sinoatrial nodeThe area of cardiac muscle tissue that divides the right and left sides of the heart is called ____________.septumThe heart tissue is composed of cardiac muscle called _______________.myocardiumThe right atrium receives blood from the __________.vena cavaThe heart is located:all of the above.The left ventricle receives blood from the ________________.left atriumWhich of the following is not a primary function of the cardiac valves?To facilitate an action potential through the heartWhich of the following lists the heart's primary valves in the order in which blood passes through them?tricuspid, pulmonary semilunar valve, bicuspid, aortic semilunar valveThe ____________ valves control blood flow through the aorta and the pulmonary trunk.semilunarThe heart consists of four chambers, which include _________________.right atrium, right ventricle, left atrium, and left ventricleThe _________ valve is located between the right atrium and the right ventricle.tricuspidThe right ventricle pumps blood to the ____________ while the left ventricle pumps blood to the ______________.pulmonary circuit; systemic circuitThe components found in blood that carry out blood clotting are:thrombocytesWhich of the following cells is capable of carrying out the process of phagocytosis?NeutrophilsWhich of the following terms describes the process of forming new red blood cells?ErythropoiesisErythrocytes have a discoid shape, which is beneficial because it allows:increased surface area for maximum oxygen absorption.Which of the following is not a type of white blood cell?PlateletsWhich of the following makes up the largest component of whole blood?PlasmaWhich of the following lists the correct pathway of blood through the circulatory system?Left ventricle, aorta, systemic circuit, vena cava, right atrium, right ventricle, lungs, left atriumThe ______________ system is an integral component of the circulatory system.pulmonary systemThe functions of the circulatory system include all of the following except:to deliver carbon dioxide to body tissuesMost of the carbon dioxide that enters the body is converted to which of the following?Bicarbonate ionsWhich of the following is a passive process during which the lungs recoil as the respiratory muscles relax and the thorax decreases in size?ExhalationWhich of the following fill the lungs and appear as tiny end ducts of branching airways?Alveolar ductsThe respiratory control center is present in which part of the brain?MedullaThe upper passage ways of lungs are responsible for which of the following?Warming, filtering, and moistening the incoming airThe main passageways into the lungs are called which of the following?BronchiThe tube that connects the larynx to the bronchi is called ____________.TracheaWhich of the following is not a component of the respiratory system?BrainWhat causes oxygen to be released from the Hemoglobin?The concentration of oxygen drops in the tissues.Exchange of gases between the blood and body cells is known as which of the following?Internal respirationThe pharynx is a conduit for air and food. It is divided into three segments which contain lymphoid structures that play significant roles in protection and defense. Which segment of the pharynx contains the pharyngeal tonsils?nasopharynxWhich of the following salivary glands primarily contributes to the production and secretion of saliva?Submandibular glandsThe large intestine functions as a reservoir of undigested materials that will later be excreted. Which of the following segments store the fecal material prior to defecation?RectumThe Peritoneum is the serous membrane that covers the abdominal cavity. Some organs of the gastrointestinal tract are covered by peritoneum (intraperitoneal organs) while others are not (retroperitoneal organs). Which of the following segments of the large intestine are located intraperitoneally?Transverse colonThe enteric nervous system, which provides the nervous control to gastrointestinal processes, is distributed in the layers of the digestive tract. Of the four layers, where is the Myenteric or Auerbach plexus located?MuscularisWhich of the following structures is not correctly paired with its function?Small intestine - secretion of trypsin and chymotrypsin that aid in protein digestionHydrochloric acid (HCl) is the acid that aids digestion in the stomach. HCl is particularly important in the digestion of which component of food?ProteinsFurther digestion and absorption of nutrients occur in three segments of small intestine with the aid of secretions from pancreas, liver, and gallbladder. In which segment is the opening of the pancreatic duct and common bile duct located?DuodenumWhich of the following processes occur in the stomach?Formation of chymeThe wall of the alimentary canal is comprised of both skeletal and smooth muscle fibers that function in movement and mechanical digestion. Which segment of the alimentary canal contains skeletal muscle fibers?EsophagusWhich of the following is true of bolus?It is the partially digested food that leaves the oral cavity and enters the stomach.Which of the following is not a constriction of the ureter?Vesicourethral junctionReabsorption of water and electrolytes occur in various parts of the renal tubules. In which segment is sodium mostly reabsorbed?Proximal Convoluted TubulesWhich of the following is not a function of the urinary system?Production of erythropoietin, calcitriol, and aldosteroneWhich of the following organs of the urinary system is not correctly paired with its function?Urethra - temporarily holds the urine prior to excretionThe nephron is the basic unit of the kidney that is responsible for filtering blood. Which of the following is not a capillary network in the nephrons?Loop of HenleWhich of the following is the correct sequence of transport of filtrate from the nephrons to the renal pelvis?Proximal Convoluted Tubule - Loop of Henle - Distal Convoluted Tubule - Collecting Duct - Minor Calyx - Major Calyx - Renal PelvisWhich of the following is not true regarding the process of fertilization?The corpus luteum degenerates after an egg is fertilized.The hormone __________ assists estrogen in stimulating the formation of the endometrium.progesteroneThe hormone ____________ has the primary role of producing sperm.testosteroneWhich of the following hormones is primarily produced and secreted by the male reproductive system?TestosteroneWhich of the following hormones is not primarily involved in the function of the female reproductive system?TestosteroneWhich of the following is not true about estrogen?It stimulates milk productionWhich of the following is the primary organ of the male reproductive system responsible for producing sperm?Seminiferous tubulesWhich of the following is the primary organ of the female reproductive system responsible for releasing mature eggs?OvariesWhich of the following terms describes the process of cell division, resulting in gametes?MeiosisWhich of the following is a primary function of the male and/or female reproductive systems?To produce gametesWhich of the following structures in the retina is not correctly matched to its function?Macula: serves as a conduit where the optic nerve exits the eyeballWhich of the following is not a function of the retina?Regulation of the amount of light that enters the eyeWhich part of the eye allows us to see color?RetinaWhich of the following structures functions in directing sound waves into the ear?AuricleThe inner ear is comprised of a series of canals that are filled with fluid. These canals are the bony and membranous labyrinths, which contain perilymph and endolymph, respectively. Which of the following is not a component of the bony labyrinth?SacculeSound waves are transmitted to the inner ear via the three auditory ossicles, resulting in the vibration of the tympanic membrane. Which bone of the middle ear is the first to receive the vibration from the tympanic membrane?MalleusThe ear functions as an organ of hearing and in maintaining balance/ equilibrium. Which of the following structures is primarily responsible for detecting and processing sounds?Organ of CortiWhat is the structure that provides communication between the pharynx and the middle ear?Eustachian Tube