Patho Endocrine Exam 3
Terms in this set (44)
secretes hormones directly into the blood rather than through a duct.
Chemical Produced in the body that exerts its effects on specific tissues known as target tissues
The tissues that respond specifically to a given hormone
is a molecule that can bind to a specific hormone.
Hormone Receptor Binding
Hormones recognize their target tissues and exert their actions by binding to receptor sites on or within the target tissue cells. Each receptor site type is specific for only one hormone.
Work in a "lock and key" manner in that only the correct hormone key can bind to and activate the receptor site or lock. Binding a hormone to its receptor causes the target tissue to change its activity.
The hormone causes the opposite action of the initial condition change. When a condition starts to move away from the normal range and a specific action or response is needed to correct this change, secretion of the hormone capable of causing the correct response is stimulated until the need or demand is met.
Primary pituitary dysfunction
Disorders of hormones secreted by the anterior pituitary gland can result from problems arising within the anterior pituitary gland itself.
Secondary pituitary dysfunction
Disorders of hormones secreted by the anterior pituitary gland can result from problems in the hypothalamus that change the anterior pituitary function
One or more hormones may be undersecreted
One or more hormones may be over secreted
a deficiency of one or more anterior pituitary hormones, resulting in metabolic problems and sexual dysfunction
If only one hormone is affected
an extremely rare condition in which there is decreased production of all of the anterior pituitary hormones
hormone oversecretion occurring with tumors or hyperplasia.
Results of Hyperpituitarism
PRL problems (galactorrhea (breast mild production), amenorrhea and infertility) GH overproduction (gigantism, acromegaly, and hyperglycemia).
a water metabolism problem caused by an antidiuretic hormone, ADH, deficiency; causes polyuria.
excretion of large volumes of dilute urine
Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone
a problem in which vasopressin is secreted even when plasma osmolarity is low or normal.
occurs when water is retained due to SIADH, is a decrease serum sodium level
Acute adrenal insufficiency or Addisonian crisis
is a life-threatening event in which the need for cortisol and aldosterone is greater than the available supply.
Adrenal insufficiency, Addison's disease
is classified as primary or secondary. Anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and weight loss occur. Laboratory findings include low serum cortisol, low fasting blood glucose, low sodium, elevated potassium, and increased serum blood urea nitrogen levels.
Hypercortisolism or Cushing Disease
Is exaggerated actions of glucocorticoids. Seen with excess secretion of cortisol from the adrenal cortex. Causes Buffalo hump, moon face, hirsutism, and oligomenorrhea
Pituitary cushings Disease
overproduction of ACTH by APG causes hyperplasia of the adrenal cortex in adrenal glands and an excess of most hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex.
Adrenal Cushings Disease
Excess glucocorticoids are caused by a problme in the actual adrenal cortex and usually only occurs in one gland
problem caused by drug therapy or another health problem.
increased secretion of aldosterone occurs.
Primary hyperaldosteronism or Conn's syndrome
results from excessive secretion of aldosterone from one or both adrenal glands, usually caused by a benign adrenal adenoma and resulting in mineralocorticoid excess.
the excessive secretion of aldosterone is caused by high levels of angiotensin II that are stimulated by high plasma renin levels.
excessive thyroid hormone secretion from the thyroid gland, where normal feedback control over thyroid hormone secretion fails.
Excess of thyroid hormones
Negative nitrogen balance
Breakdown exceeds buildup causing a net loss of body protein
An autoimmune disorder in which antibodies are made and attach to the TSH receptor sites on the thyroid tissue. The gland then increases in size and over produces hormones
goiter is enlargement of the thyroid gland.
protrusion of eyes
dry waxy swelling of the frone surfaces of the lower legs.
Toxic multinodular goiter
hyperthyroidism caused by multiple thyroid nodules.
caused by excessive use of thyroid replacement hormones
results in decreased metabolism from low levels of thyroid hormones. Can be underproduction by thyroid, under consumption of substances needed to make thyroid hormones like iodide and throsine.
is the edema caused by this and is around the eyes, hands feet and between shoulder blades. Tongue thickens and edema forms in the larynx making for a husky voice
is a rare, serious complication of untreated or poorly treated hypothyroidism. Decreased metabolism causes the heart muscle to become flabby and dilated, resulting in decreased cardiac output and perfusion to the brain and other vital organs.
increased levels of parathyroid hormone act directly on the kidney, causing increased kidney reabsorption of calcium and increased phosphate excretion.
Hypercalcemia, hypophosphatemia, decreasing osteoblastic activity and increasing osteoclastic activity
a rare endocrine disorder in which parathyroid function is decreased. Whether the problem is a lack of PTH secretion or an ineffectiveness of PTH on tissues, the result is the same: hypocalcemia.