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x biochem ch. 1: 1-4: Eukaryotic Cells
The Biggest Biological Distinction— Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
Terms in this set (13)
Multicellular plants, animals protista and fungi are all...
Three of the most important organelles in eukaryotic cells are the n
These are each separated from the rest of the cell by a double membrane.
3 most important organelles in euk's
These two contain DNA that differs from that found in the nucleus, and both carry out transcription and protein synthesis distinct from that directed by the nucleus.
mitochondria and chloroplasts
Animal cells, protists have neither of these
One of its prominent features is this area, which is rich in RNA.
The RNA of a cell is synthesized on a DNA template in this area for export to the cytoplasm through pores in the nuclear membrane.
When a cell is about to divide, the loosely organized strands of ____ become tightly coiled, and the result- ing chromosomes can be seen under a microscope.
The genes, responsible for the transmission of inherited traits, are part of the DNA found in each chromosome.
A second very important eukaryotic organelle is the mitochondrion, which, like the nucleus, has a double membrane (Figure 1.20). The outer membrane has a fairly smooth surface, but the inner membrane exhibits many folds called .
___ processes that occur in mitochondria yield energy for the cell. Most of the enzymes responsible for these important reactions are associated with the inner mitochondrial membrane.
Other enzymes needed for these reactions, as well as DNA that differs from that found in the nucleus, are found in the internal mitochondrial matrix.
is frequently found close to the smooth endoplasmic reticulum. It is a series of membranous sacs.
is involved in secretion of proteins from the cell, but it also appears in cells in which the primary function is not protein secretion
. In particular, it is the site in the cell in which sugars are linked to other cellular components, such as proteins.
The Golgi apparatus
_____ are similar to lysosomes; their principal characteristic is that they contain enzymes involved in the metabolism of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which is toxic to the cell. The enzyme catalase, which occurs in them, catalyzes the conversion of H2O2 to H2O and O2.
_____ are found in plant cells only. They contain the enzymes that catalyze the glyoxylate cycle, a pathway that converts some lipids to carbohydrate with glyoxylic acid as an intermediate.
Also present in plant cells are large central ___, sacs in the cytoplasm surrounded by a single membrane. Although they sometimes appear in animal cells, those in plants are more prominent.
They tend to increase in number and size as the plant cell ages.
An important function of ____ is to isolate waste substances that are toxic to the plant and are produced in greater amounts than the plant can secrete to the environment.
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