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Terms in this set (232)
they all make up what?
the heart, blood vessels and blood all make up what system of the body?
the CARDIOVASCULAR system refers only to what?
the heart and the blood vessels
the study of blood is called?
O2, CO2, nutrients, wastes, hormones and stem cells are all transported via what system in the body?
Inflammation, limitation of the spread of infects, destruction of microorganisms and cancer cells, neutralization of toxins and the initiation of clotting are all protection functions of what system in the body
Fluid balance, stabilization of pH in the extracellular fluid as well as temperature control are all regulatory functions of what system in the human body
how much blood does adult humans have?
What is the name of a liquid connective tissue consisting of cells and extracellular matrix
what is the name of the matrix of the blood, it is a clear, light yellow fluid?
What is the name of the elements in blood, such as blood cells and cell fragments (platelets)?
how many kinds of formed elements are there?
- leukocytes ( has 5 sub groups which has subgroups)
what are the seven types of formed elements in the blood?
-leukocytes ( granulocytes and agranulocytes)
what are the the two types of leukocytes?
granulocytes and agranulocytes
what is the difference between agranulocytes and granulocytes?
granulocytes have granules and agranulocytes do not have granules in the cytoplasm
what are the three types of granulocytes ( leukocytes)?
what are the two types of agranulocytes (leukocytes)?
formed elements of blood
when centrifuging blood, what formed element is the heaviest and settles first?
usually between 37% - 52%
when erythrocytes are separated from blood via centrifusion, the value that is obtained for the erythrocytes is called what?
what percentage and color does white blood cells and platelets make up in blood?
1% total volume with a buffy coat
the complex mixture of water, proteins, nutrients, electrolytes, nitrogenous wastes, hormones and gases in the blood is called?
what percentage of plasma makes up blood?
albumins, globulins and fibrinogen are all proteins found where?
in the plasma of blood
ions, nutrients, waste products, gases and regulatory substances are all solutes found where?
in the plasma of the blood
what is the name of the remaining fluid when blood clots and the solids are removed form the plasma; it is similar to plasma except for the absence of fibrinogen?
what are the thee major categories of plasma proteins?
what is the smallest and most abundant plasma protein?
what plasma protein are antibodies?
what plasma protein contributes to viscosity and osmolarity, influences blood pressure, flow and fluid balance
what plasma protein are three different types ( alpha, beta and gamma) and also provides immune system functions, clotting and solute transportation?
what plasma protein is a precursor of sticky fibrin threads that help to form blood clots?
what are plasma cells?
antibody producing cells
where are plasma cells located?
bone marrows and spleen
where are plasma proteins made?
liver with the exception of globulins
what is the nitrogenous waste found in the blood?
what cation makes up 90% of plasma cations?
the resistance of a fluid to flow, resulting form the cohesion of its particles is called?
The total molarity of dissolved particles that cannot pass through the blood vessel wall is called? osmolarity
osmolarity of blood
If the osmolarity of blood is too high what happens?
blood absorbs too much water, increasing the blood pressure
if the osmolarity of blood is too low what happens?
too much water stays in tissue, blood pressure drops and edema occurs
The contribution of protein to osmotic pressure is called?
the colloid osmotic pressure (COP)
whole blood is 4.5-5.5 times as viscous as water ( true/false)
plasma is two times as viscous as water ( true/false)
what is the deficiency of plasma proteins called?
- extreme starvation
- liver or kidney disease (loss of protein synthesis or protein loss through urine
- severe burns ( protein loss at the body surface)
these can all contribute to what?
Child with a severe protein deficiency; fed on cereals once weaned. They have
- thin arms and legs due to lack of muscle
-skin is shiny and tight edema
- swollen abdomen - ascites
this is called ?
The production of blood, especially its formed elements is called?
400 billion platelets, 200 billion RBCs and 10 billion WBCs are produced every in an adult human body ( true/false)
what produces the first blood cells in utero?
the yolk sac produces stem cells for first blood cells
the liver produces fetal red blood cells in utero and stops at birth ( true/false)
what produces all seven formed elements?
red bone marrow
what were formerly called hemocytoblasts or hemopoietic stem cells?
pluripotent stem cells (PPSC)
what is the name of the unit that have specialized stem cells which only produce one class of formed element of blood?
colony forming units
What is the name of blood formation in the bone marrow?
what is the name of the blood formation in the lymphatic organs?
what is the location of yellow marrow (fat) in an adult?
in the bones of the appendicular skeleton
what is the location of red bone marrow in an adult?
in the bones of the axial skeleton
- carry oxygen from lungs to cell tissues
- pick up carbon dioxide from tissues and bring to it the lungs
these are two principal functions of what ?
what is the name of a disc-shaped cell with thick rim with a diameter of 7.5 uM and a thickness at the rim of 2.0 uM?
the lack of mitochondria in a cell means?
anaerobic fermentation to produce ATP
The lack of nucleus and DNA in a cell means?
no protein synthesis or mitosis
Blood type is determined by what?
antigens ( glycoprotein and glycolipids)
What proteins give membrane durability and resilience to erythrocytes, allowing them to stretch, bend and squeeze through small capillaries?
cytoskeletal proteins ( spectrin and actin)
what is the function in carbonic anhydrase (CAH) in the cytoplasm of red blood cells?
It converts CO2 and H2O to carbonic acid;
it also plays an important role in gas transport and pH balance
what percentage of the cytoplasm of a red blood cell is made up of hemoglobin?
If 33% of an erythrocyte's cytoplasm is made up of hemoglobin, what makes up the remain 66%?
ATP, carbonic anhydrase (CAH) and lipids
what percentage of oxygen is dissolved in the plasma?
A nonprotein moiety that binds O2 to ferrous ion (Fe2+) at its center is called?
a heme group
What part of an erythrocyte has four protein chains ( 2 alpha and 2 beta chains)
what binds to globin moiety?
What are the types of hemoglobin?
embryonic, fetal and adult
what is the difference between ( embryonic & fetal) hemoglobin and adult hemoglobin?
Both embryonic and fetal hemoglobin (HbF) have a greater affinity for oxygen than adult because it had gamma (Y) chains instead of B like adults hemoglobin.
What does a RBC count and hemoglobin concentration indicate?
Amount of O2 blood can cary
What is the percentage of the whole blood volume composed of red blood cells called?
hematocrit or packed cell volume
what effects does androgen have on RBC production?
androgens stimulate RBC production ( men have higher RBC values)
what is the average lifespan of an erythrocyte?
how many RBCs are produced per second?
2.5 million (PCV = 20ml/day)
how long does the development of a RBC take?
What occurs during the development of an RBC?
reduction in cell size, increase in cell number, synthesis of hemoglobin and loss of nucleus
erythrocyte production (erythropoiesis)
what is the first committed cell in erythropoiesis?
erythrocyte colony forming unit
what cell in erythropoiesis multiplies and synthesizes hemoglobin?
After the nucleus of a red blood cell is discarded during the developmental stages, what is formed?
reticulocyte (fine network of endoplasmic reticulum)
Iron is lost daily through what mechanisms in the body?
Urine, feces or even bleeding in some cases
what are the two dietary forms of iron?
ferric (Fe3+) and Ferrous (Fe2+)
Where is Ferric (Fe3+) converted to Fe2+ (ferrous)?
in the stomach
what binds to Ferrous ( Fe2+) and transport it to the small intestine?
After gastroferritin transports ferrous to the small intestine and it is absorbed, what protein then binds to ferrous to transport it to the bone marrow, liver and other tissues?
What is ferrous transported to the bone marrow to create?
what is ferrous transported to the muscle to create?
what is ferrous transported to the mitochondria?
what are cytochromes?
Cytochromes are the proteins that are the remaining electron carriers between ubiquinone and oxygen.
Their prosthetic group, called a heme group, has an iron atom that accepts and donates electrons. (It is similar to the heme group in hemoglobin, the red blood cells, except that the iron in hemoglobin carries oxygen, not electrons.
what is ferritin?
storage form of iron
What protein in the liver binds to ferrous to create ferritin?
What function does vitamin B12 and folic acid play in erythropoiesis?
Rapid cell division and DNA synthesis
What roles do Vitamin C and copper play in erythropoiesis?
cofactors for enzymes synthesizing hemoglobin
what is hypoxemia?
low oxygen in the blood
- low levels of O2 (hypoxemia)
- high altitude
- increase in exercise
- loss of lung tissue in emphysema
these are all stimuli for increasing ?
How is erythropoiesis stimulated?
low oxygen levels; hormone called erythropoietin from kidneys tells bone marrow to produce more red blood cells
RBC count increases in 3-4 days
What is hemolysis?
RBCs lyse in narrow channels in spleen
What causes RBCs to become fragile, which leads to hemolysis?
As RBCs age spectrin deteriortes making it fragile
what protein in the spleen degrades RBCs?
What is an excess of RBCs called?
What are the two types of polycythemia?
primary and secondary
When polycythemia occurs because of cancer in erythropoietic cell line in red bone marrow, what type of polycythemia is that?
primary polycythemia or polycythemia vera
When polycythemia occurs because of dehydration, emphysema, high altitude or physical conditioning, what type of polycythemia is that?
What are the dangers of polycythemia?
- increased blood volume, pressure and viscosity
- can double the volume and tripe the viscosity
-can lead to embolism, stroke or heart failure
What are the three causes of anemia?
- inadequate erythropoiesis or hemoglobin synthesis
- hemorrhagic anemias from bleed
-hemolytic anemias from RBC destruction
what is aplastic anemia?
complete cessation of erythropoiesis
what is hypoplastic anemia?
slowing of erythropoiesis
what is pernicious anemia?
Vitamin B12 deficiency
- kidney failure and insufficient erythropoietin
- inadequate vitamin B12 from poor nutrition or lack of intrinsic factor ( prenicious anemia)
- aplastic anemia - complete cessation of erythropoiesis
these all fall into what category of anemia?
inadequate erythropoiesis or hemoglobin synthesis
- trauma, hemophilia, menstruation and ulcers are all part of what type of anemia?
hemorrhagic anemia ( from bleeding)
When drug reactions, poisoning, parasitic infections, hereditary defects or blood type incompatibility causes RBC destruction, it is know as what type of anemia?
- tissue hypoxia and necrosis
- blood osmolarity is reduced
- blood viscosity is low
these are potential consequences of?
What is lethargy?
Limited spontaneous movement or speech; easy arousal with normal speech or touch; may not be oriented to time, place, or person
what disease is caused by a recessive allele that modifies the structure of the hemoglobin molecules (HbS)?
blood types and transfusion compatibility are a matter of interactions between ?
plasma proteins and erythrocytes
who discovered blood types A, B and O in the 1900s?
Blood types are based on interactions between?
antigens and antibodies
Complex molecules on the surface of the cell membrane that are unique to that individual are called?
The antigens on the surface of the RBC that is the basis for blood typing is called?
When an antibody molecule binding two or more antigen molecules causing clumping of red blood cells, it is called?
Proteins that are secreted by plasma cells, part of the immune response to foreign matter and binds to antigens and mark them for destruction are called ?
what are the two types of agglutinogens called?
Antigen A and Antigen B
how are agglutinogens determined?
Carbohydrate moieties found on RBC surface determines agglutinogens
antibodies that are found in the plasma, with two different forms (anti-A and anti-B ) are called?
How is blood type determined?
by the presence or absence of specific surface antigens (agglutinogens) in red blood cell plasma membranes
Each antibody can attach to several foreign antigens on several different RBCs at the same time (10 binding sites), this process is called?
at what age are plasma antibodies at max after birth?
what blood type is the universal donor?
What is the most common blood type and it also lacks RBC antigens?
What blood type is the universal recipient but also the rarest blood type?
What is the Rh group?
Antigen D or Rh D. This determines if you are "+" or "-".
what is the least abundant formed element?
- relative size and abundance
- size and shape of their nuclei
-presence or absence of certain cytoplasmic granules
-staining properties of the granules
These are all characteristics used to distinguished what?
the five types of leukocytes
what plasma protein is a polymorphonuclear leukocyte, it barely has visible granules in cytoplasm that take up acidic or basic stains and also have 3-5 lobed nucleus?
neutrophils (60-70%) - granulocyte
what plasma protein has largely rosy-orange granules; bilobed nucleus?
eosinophils ( 2-4%) - granulocyte
what plasma protein is large, abundant, violet granules (obscure a large U or S-shaped nucleus)?
basophils (<1%) - granulocyte
what plasma protein has various amounts of bluish cytoplasm ( scanty to abundant); ovoid/round, uniform dark violet nucleus?
lymphocytes - agranulocytes
what plasma protein is the largest WBC; ovoid, kidney, or horseshoe-shaped nucleus
what type of leukocyte would increase during bacterial infections; causing phagocytosis of bacteria and release antimicrobial chemicals?
what type of leukocyte would increase during a parasitic infections, collagen diseases, allergies, diseases of the spleen and CNS?
function of histamine during infections?
vasodilator - that speeds the flow of blood to an injured area; makes vessels more permeable to allow neutrophils and clotting proteins reach the injured area.
function of heparin during infections?
anticoagulant - promotes the mobility of other WBCs in the area
what type of leukocyte would increase in chicken pox, sinusitis, diabetes, secretes histamine and heparin?
What leukocyte increases during diverse infections and immune responses; destroy cells ( cancer, foreign and virally infected cells) ?
- "present: antigens to activate other immune cells
-coordinate actions of other immune cells
-secrete antibodies and provide immune memory
these are done by what leukocyte?
what leukocyte increases during viral infections and inflammation?
what leukocyte leaves the bloodstream and transform into macrophages; phagocytize pathogens and debris
What are antigen-presenting cells (APCs)?
cells that process an antigen and display it to a T cell
what is the production of white blood cells called?
these are what type of stem cells?
pluripotent stem cells
What are colony-stimulating factors (CSFs)?
mature lymphocytes and macrophages produce colony stimulating factors (CSFs); each CSF stimulates specific WBC production
where do T-lymphocytes complete their development?
in the thymus
Where are granulocytes and monocytes stored and released from?
red bone marrow
life span of granulocytes
live for 5 day or longer
life span for monocytes
transform into macrophages and live for several years
what is leukopenia?
low WBC below 5000/ul
Causes of leukopenia
-infectious disease ( measles, flu, AIDS_
what are the effects of leukopenia (low WBC)?
elevated risk of infection
what is leukocytosis?
high WBC count 10000/uL
what are the causes of leukocytosis (high WBC)?
infection, allergy and disease
what is differential WBC count?
identifies what percentage of the total WBC count consist of each type of leukocyte
what is leukemia?
cancer of hemopoietic tissue that usually produces an extraordinary high number of circulating leukocytes and their precursors
what is myeloid leukemia?
uncontrolled granulocyte production
what is lymphoid leukemia?
uncontrolled lymphocyte or monocyte production
what is acute leukemia?
appears suddenly, progresses rapidly, death within months
what is chronic leukemia?
undetected for months, survival time is three years
normal and leukemic blood
what is the cessation of bleeding called?
what are small fragments of megakaryocyte cells called that aid in bleeding ?
Normal platelet counts
-secrete vasodilators that help reduce blood loss
- stick together to form platelet plugs to seal small breaks
-secrete procoagulants or clotting factors that promote clotting
-initiate formation of clot-dissolving enzyme
-chemically attract neutrophils and monocytes to sites of inflammation
-phagocytize and destroy bacteria
-secrete growth factors that stimulate mitosis to repair blood vessels
these are all functions of what plasma cell?
what is thrombopoesis?
production of platelets
What are megakaryocytes?
Platelets are fragments of large cells called megakaryocytes found in red bone marrow
what cells become megakaryoblasts?
pluripotent stem cells that develop receptors for thrombopoietin become megakaryoblasts
What are megakaryoblasts?
forms gigantic cell called megakaryocyte with a multilobed nucleus; remains in the bone marrow
Formation of platelets form megakaryocytes
long strands of cytoplasm (proplatelets) protrude into the blood sinusoids - blood flow splits off fragments called platelets; breakup though to occur in lungs more proplatelets enter and more platelets exit
what is a vascular spasm?
prompt constriction of a broken vessel - most immediate protection against blood loss
what are the causes of vascular spasm?
- injury stimulates pain receptors ( some directly innervate blood vessels to constrict)
- smooth muscle injury
- platelets release serotonin ( vasoconstrictor)
what are the effects of hemostasis?
- prompt constriction of a broken vessel
- provides time for other two clotting pathways
What is prostacyclin (prostaglandin I2)?
it lines blood vessels to keep platelets from sticking
what are platelet pseudopods?
platelet pseudopods stick to damaged vessel and other platelets, which contract and draw walls of damaged vessel together forming a platelet plug
What is platelet plug formation?
broken vessel exposes collagen fibers which cause platelets to bind and collect on one another with the aid of platelet pseudopods
what is coagulation (clotting)?
it is the last and most effective defense against bleeding;
- it is the conversion of plasma protein fibrinogen into insoluble fibrin threads to form framework of clot
what are procoagulants ( clotting factors)?
They are usually produced by the liver and are present in plasma;
- the activation of one factor will activate the next to form a reaction cascade
what are the two pathways for coagulation to begin?
extrinsic and intrinsic pathways
When the clotting factors (CFs) are released by damaged vessels and perivascular tissue it begins the reaction cascade that forms a clot; what coagulation pathway is this ( extrinsic or intrinsic)?
when clotting factors found in blood begins the reaction cascade that forms a cloth; what coagulation pathway is this (extrinsic or intrinsic)?
what coagulation pathway is initiated by the release of tissue thromboplastin ( fact III) from damaged tissue?
what coagulation pathway is initiated by platelets releasing Hageman factors ( factor XII)
what ion is required for both coagulation pathways?
What is prothrombin activator?
converts globulin prothrombin (II) to thrombin
what is a fibrin polymer?
framework of blood clot; formed by cross-linking of fibrin by factor XIII
what is thrombin?
an enzyme in blood plasma that causes the clotting of blood by converting fibrinogen to fibrin.
enzyme amplification in clotting
the activation of factor X in the coagulation pathways leads to the production of what?
what is rapid clotting
each activated cofactor activates many more molecules in next step of sequence
function of fibroblasts in blood cloths
fibroblasts invade the clot and produce fibrous connective tissue to further strengthen the clot
what is clot retraction?
clot retraction occurs within 30 minutes
- spinous processes of platelets attach to fibrin threads and draw the edges of the broken vessel together ( clots becomes more compact)
what is platelet derived growth factor?
it is a mitotic stimulant for fibroblasts and smooth muscle to multiply and repair damaged vessel
Where is platelet derived growth factor derived from?
It is secreted by platelets and endothelial cells
what is kallikrein?
kallikrein converts plasminogen into plasmin, a fibrin dissolving enzyme that breaks up the clot
what is fibrinolysis?
the dissolution of a clot
what factor speeds up the production of plasma enzyme kallikrein?
what is platelet repulsion?
platelets do not adhere to prostacyclin-coating
What is thrombin dilution?
small amounts of thrombin can form spontaneously in the plasma because of the fast flow of blood it does not form
what is antithrombin?
an enzyme from the liver that interrupts the coagulation process, mainly by inhibiting thrombin and activated factors X and IX (factors Xa and IXa)
How does heparin work?
heparin derives from basophils and mast cells, it interferes with the formation of prothrombin activator, inhibits action of thrombin on fibrinogen and promotes antithrombin
what is hemophilia ?
a family of hereditary diseases characterized by deficiencies of one factor or another
what is a hematoma?
mass of clotted blood in the tissues
what is thrombosis?
abnormal clotting in unbroken vessel
what is a thrombus?
a clot that may grow to obstruct a blood vessel
what is pulmonary embolism?
clot may break free, travel from veins to lungs
what is an embolus?
anything that can travel in the blood and block blood vessels
what is an infarction ( tissue death)?
when a clot blocks blood supply to an organ; hear, brain, lung or kidney (MI or stroke)
what vitamin is required for the formation of clotting factors?
What is vitamin K antagoist?
what is thromboxane A2?
a platelet aggregator that is released by blood platelets
how does aspirin work in terms of clotting?
aspirin suppresses thromboxane A2 which prevents platelet aggregation and thrombosis
what is streptokinase?
an enzyme made by streptococci bacteria that is used to dissolve clots in coronary vessels
- digests almost any protein -nonspecific
what is tissue plasminogen activator (TPA) ?
coverts plasminogen into clot dissolving plasmin
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