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100 terms

Psychology Review

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The personality theorist, Sigmund Freud, was an Austrian:
Physcian
Which perspective is most relevant to understanding the impact of strokes and brain diseases on memory
neuroscience
the survival of organisms best suited to a particular environment is known as
natural selection
Dr. Mills engages in basic research on why individuals conform to the behaviors and opinions of others. Which specialty area does his research best represent
social psychology
efforts to discover whether the intelligence of children is more heavily influenced by their genetic dispositions or by their home environments are most directly relevant to the debate regarding
nature versus nurture
In the context of debates over the origins of psychological traits, nature is to nurture as:
Darwin is to Locke
Which perspective is most concerned with the unique ways in which individuals interpret their own life experiences
cognitive
Who suggested that animal spirits flow through the nerves so as to produce movements of the body
Rene Descartes
Dr. Roberts engages in basic research involving the construction and validation of tests designed to assess individual difference in traits such as anxiety and self-esteem. which specialty area does her research best represent
social psychology
Dr. Lipka is involved in an applied research study of customer satisfaction with a newly developed line of facial cosmetics and other beauty aids. Dr. Lipka is most likely an __________ psychologist
industrial/organizational
Dr. Santaniello conducts basic research on how children's moral thinking changes as they grow older. It is most likely that Dr. Santaniello is a _________ psychologist
developmental
Which psychological specialists are most likely to be involved in applied research
industrial/organizational psychologists
John Locke's description of the infant mind as a blank slate is most directly relevant to the debate regarding
nature versus nurture
Professor Brody attempts to measure the relative impact of inborn traits and social influences on homosexual behavior. Her research efforts best illustrates the interests of the _______ perspective
behavior genetics
In order to determine whether the strength of people's self-esteem is related to their income levels, researchers would most likely make use of
correlational research
the most accurate way of assessing the impact of breast milk feedings on the intellectual development of children is by means of
experiment
the median of a distribution of scores is the
score exceeded by 50 percent of all the scores
the placebo effect best illustrates the effect of ______ on feelings and behaviors
positive expectations
In a single day, 45 babies were born in hospital X, 65 babies in hospital Y, and 25 babies in hospital Z. At which hospital is there the greatest probability that more than 60 percent of the babies are of the same sex
The probability is the same at all three hospitals
the explanatory power of a scientific theory is most closely linked to its capacity to
predictions
Adelle dreamed that a handsome young man she had met the previous day asked her for a date. When he actually did call for a date several days later. Adelle concluded that dreams accurately predict future events. Her belief best illustrates
illusory correlation
The 50th percentile of a skewed distribution of scores cannot be equal to
the mode
The tendency to overestimate the extent to which overestimate the extent to which others share our own attitudes is known as
the false consensus effect
in order to study the effects of loud noise on work productivity, Dr. McDuffee had one group of research participants work in a noisy room and a second group work in a quiet room. Those who worked in the quiet room were exposed to the ____ condition
control
the face that some basketball fans believe the outcome of a player's last few shots is a predictor of the outcome of that person's next shot best illustrates
illusory correlation
a sample average can be used to estimate a population average with greater precision if the sample is
large
psychological differences between the genders are
far outweighed by gender similarities
if the points on a scatterplot are clustered in a pattern that extends from the upper left to the lower right, this would suggest that the two variables depicted are
negatively correlated
median is to range as
central tendency is to variation
coile and miller's analysis of animal research published during a five-year period in American Psychological Association journal is revealed that psychologists
did none of the above
participants in an experiment are said to be "blind" if they are uniformed about
which experimental treatment, if any, they are recieving
a hypothesis is a
testable prediction that gives direction to research
compared to the general adult population of the United States, those who are legally eligible to serve as jurors in capital punishment cases are _____ likely to be minorities and _____ likely to be women
less; less
the postmodemist viewpoint suggest that science
is a reflection of cultural assumptions and personal
the capacity of one brain area to take over the functions of another damaged brain area is known as brain
plasticity
babies favor the ____ side of their mouth when beginning a smile and the ____ side when babbling
left; right
a brief electrical charge that travels down the axon of a neuron is called the
action potential
the motor cortex is located in the ____ lobes
frontal
in transmitting sensory information to the brain, an electrical signal within a single neuron travels from the
dendrites to the cell body to the axon
the association areas are located in the
cerebral cortex
in order for you to experience the pain of a sprained ankle, ___ must first relay messages from your ankle to your central nervous system
sensory neurons
schizophrenia is most closely linked with excess receptor activity for the neurotransmitter
dopamine
people typically recognize ____ more rapidly and accurately when they are flashed to the left hemisphere, they typically recognize ____ more rapidly and accurately when they are flashed to the right hemisphere.
words; pictures
heartbeat acceleration is to heartbeat deceleration as the ___ nervous system is the ____ nervous system
sympathetic; parasympathetic
Sir Charles Sherrington observed that impulses took more time to travel a neural pathway than he might have anticipated. His observation provided evidence for the existence of
synaptic gaps
aaron consistently exhibits a knee-jerk response without having any sensations of the taps oh his knees. Aaron's experience is most indicative of a
severed spinal cord
the parasympathetic nervous system ____ digestion and ____ heartbeat
accelerates; decelerates
Endorphins are
neurotransmitters
to identify which specific brain areas are most active during a particular mental task, researchers would be most likely to make us of a
PET scan
in a tragic diving accident, Andrew damaged his spinal cord and consequently suffered paralysis of his legs. Andrew's injury was located in his
central nervous system
the strengthening of synaptic connections facilitates the formation of
neural networks
which of the following is the component of the limbic system that plays an essential role in the formation of new memories
hippocampus
the part of the peripheral nervous system that control glandular activity and the muscles of internal organ is called the
autonomic nervous sytem
a synapse is a
junction between a sending neuron and a reciving neuron
addictive drug cravings are likely to be asosciated with reward centers in the
limbic system
which part of your brain recieves information as to whether you are moving your legs?
sensory cortex
the speed at which a neural impulse travels is increased when the axon is encased by a
myelin sheath
GABA is to glutamate as___ is to ____
inhibitory neurotransmitter; excitatory neurotransmitter
Botulin poisoning from improperly canned food causes paralysis by blocking the release of
acetylcholine
the heritability of a specific trait will be greatest among genetically ___ individuals who have been raised in ____ environments
dissimilar, similar
compared to fraternal twins, identical twins are much more similar in
all of the above
the human genome is the comple
sequence of nucleotides organized as coiled chains of DNA
social learning theorists emphasize that
observation and imitation play a crucial role in the gender-typing process
an evolutionary psychologist would suggest that people are genetically predisposed to
do all of the above
those who suggest that our choice today shape tomorrow's possibilites are emphasizing the importancce of
human responsibility
the study of the relative power of genetic and environmental influences on behavior and personality traits is known as
behavior genetics
in order to estimate trait heritability, reserchers are most likely to make use of
twin studies
a cluster of behaviors expected of those who occupy a particular social position is a
role
men judge women as especially attractive if they appear ____ and women judge men as especially attractive if they appear ____
youthful; mature
an awareness that children's temperaments influence parents' child-rearing practices should inhibit our tendency to
blame parents for our own dysfunctional characteristics
gender identity refers to
the sense of being male or female
brittla is obsessed with her appearance and spends a lot of time and money on cosmetics and weight-loss programs. According to evolutionary psychologists, brittla's behavior is a product of
genetic predispostions
those who study cultural influences on behavior are most likely to highlight the importance of
norms
sperm is to cell as DNA is to
molecule
nageeb thought all nurses were young females until a middle-aged male nurse took care of him. nageeb's altered conception of a "nurse" illustrates the process of
accommodation
older people's capacity to learn and remember meaningful material does not decline as much as they capacity to learn and remember meaningless material. this best illustrates the value of
crystallized intelligence
according to piaget, a child can represent things with words and images but cannot reason with logic during the ____ stage
preoperational
in order to qualify for the office manager's job, 55-year-old mariel's must take a series of psychological tests. Her performance on the test of ___ is likely to be poorer than if she had taken it as a 25-year-old
abstract reasoning
three-year-old angela has a history of being securely attached to her mother. it is most likely that angela is
outgoing and responsive in her interactions with other children
as teenagers progress through adolescence, girls become ___ assertive and boys become ___ assertive
less; more
which of the following terms refers to a person's accumulated knowledge and verbal skills
crystallized intelligence
mr. and mrs. batson cant wait to begin toilet training their year old daughter. the batsons most clearly need to be informed about the importance of
maturation
two year old anna perceives her parents as cold and rejecting. this is most indicative of
insecure attachment
marlys is a sensitive, responsive parent who consistenly satisfies the needs of sara, her infant daughter. According to erikson, sara is likely to
form a lifelong attitude of basic trust toward the world
the "male answer syndrome" suggests that males are less likely than females to demonstrate:
intellectual humility
when looking for someone to whom they can confide their personal worries, women usually turn to ____ and men usually turn to ___
women; women
four year old karen cant remember anything of the first few months of her later life. this is best explained by the fact that
many neural connections that underlie memories are only beginning to form shortly after birth
according to kohlberg, postconventional morality involves
affirmation of self-defined ethical principles
a cross-sectional study is one in which
different age groups are tested at the same time
they powerful survival impulse that leads infants to seek closeness to their caregivers is called
attachment
research indicates that the high school girls who have the most affectionate relationships with their mothers also ten to
have difficulty forming intimate relationships with boys
aaron was extremely upset when his mother left him in the infant nursery at church and he was not reassured or comforted by her return a short while later.
aaron showed signs of insecure attachment
alzheimer's disease involves a deterioration of neurons that produce
acetylcholine
interpreting new experiences in terms of existing schemas is called
assimilation
if research suggested that a pregnant mother's use of artificial sweetner cause harm to the fetus, the artifical sweetner would be considered a
teratogen
joe wilson, age 55, has been told by experts that a hearing aid would restore his lost sense of hearing. It is likely that joe's hearing loss involves problems with the
middle ear
place theory suggests that
the pitch we hear is related to the palce where the cochlea's basilar membrane is stimulated
a time lag between left and right auditory stimulation is important for accurately
locating sounds
cocking your head would be most useful for detecting the ___ of a sound
location
frequency theory is ot pitch as the young-helmoholtz theory is to
hue