a Greek city in the eastern part of the empire. Ruled over the Balkan Peninsula, the Middle East and parts of Italy.
Founded by Emperor Constantine in 330 AD Located along land routes that connected Europe and Asia
Byzantine Emperor. Reconquered much of the old Roman Empire
Code of Justinian
Emperor Justinian collected all of the existing Roman laws and organized them into a single code - listing all the laws and opinions on each subject. Required all persons to belong to the Eastern Orthodox Christian faith.
Strong-willed wife of Emperor Justinian who ruled as Co-Empress and held great influence over the Emperor.
A split between the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church in 1054. Created their own form Christianity. There were differences on the role of icons, views on the Trinity, and the shape of the cross.
Separate from the Roman Catholic Church, Orthodox Christians differed on the role of icons, views on the Trinity, and the shape of the cross.
single most powerful organization in Western Europe during the Middle Ages. The head of the Catholic Church was the Pope in Rome.
Images of Jesus and the saints
Eastern Orthodox so Patriarch Christians did not recognize the Pope as the head of their church.
The head of the Roman Catholic Church. The Pope was regarded as the successor of St. Peter, leader of the apostles after the death of Jesus.. The Pope governed the Church with the help of cardinals, bishops, and other church officials.
.Explorers, warriors, merchants, and pirates who raided, traded, explored and settled in wide areas of Europe, Asia and the North Atlantic islands during the Middle Ages.
Viking invaders organized Slavs in the Baltic and Black Sea region into a kingdom centered in Kiev.
A title used to designate supreme rulers of the Russian Empire
Named after St. Cyril, a writing system developed in the 9th-10th century ad for Slavic-speaking peoples of the Eastern Orthodox faith.
From the fall of Rome in 476 AD to the 1400's, historians refer to this time period as The Middle Ages, or Medieval Period
Begun by the Franks and spread to all of Western Europe, kings offered nobles a grant of land, known as a feud or fief, in exchange for loyalty and service. The nobleman, known as the vassal, gave allegiance to the king.
During feudalism, most people lived on manors. A manor consisted of the lord's house and the peasants living in the surrounding territory. This economic system
Farmers laced specific knowledge of how to enrich the soil or rotate crops. Each year, only 2/3 of the land was cultivated, letting the other 1/3 remain fallow or uncultivated.
Peasant farmers produced the food used by medieval society. Most worked long hours to grow enough food to survive each year. Although most peasants were farmers, some were millers, blacksmiths, and tavern owners.
. The king relied on his nobles for his own army, and the nobles often fought among themselves or challenged the king's authority.Nobles controlled political life under feudalism.
One who reigns over a state or territory, usually for life and by hereditary right, especially a sole and absolute ruler.
armed warriors on horseback. Knights followed a Code of Chivalry
Charlemagne (King Charles) became king in 768 AD. He expanded the practice of giving land to his nobles in change for their promises of loyalty and service. He enlarged his kingdom to include France, Germany, Holland, Belgium and Northern Italy. He established a new capital a Aachen which he turned into a center of learning. He was crowned Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire in 800 by the Pope.
In 1095, Pope Urban II called on all Christians in Europe to unite and fight a holy war to recapture the Holy Land from its Muslim. rulers whoever helped or joined were promised salvation in church.
A great Christian thinker who had great influence on the Middle Ages. His most famous book, Summa Theologica, provided a summary of Christian beliefs.
In 1215, the English nobles (barons) rebelled against the taxes and forced loans being collected by King John. John was forced to sign an agreement that guaranteed all free men the right to a trial by jury and forced the king to obtain the consent of a council of nobles for most new taxes.
Originating with the Mongols, compound bows were a transforming technology during the Hundred Years War.
, Calicut in India was called "City of Spices" for its role as the major trading point of eastern spices such as black pepper and cardamom. Muslim Arab merchants graded with Calicut as early as the 7th century
the main Russian port for many centuries and was important for Baltic Sea trade.
An economic alliance of trading cities and their guilds that dominated trade along the coast of Northern Europe in the Middle Ages.
Naval vessels used by the Vikings for trade, commerce, exploration and warfare during the Viking Age. It is characterized by a long, narrow graceful hull.
Hundred Years War
A war between England and France over succession to the throne. This long period of warfare slowly strengthened royal power in both countries and allowed new weapons to emerge
Joan of Arc
A young French maiden who rallied French troops around the heir to the throne during the Hundred Years War. She turned the tide when she successfully drove the English out of the city of Orleans and crowned the new French king at Rheims Cathedral. She was later captured and burned at the stake by the English as a witch.
The invasion and subsequent occupation of England by an army of Normans and French led by Duke William II of Normandy. William, who defeated King Harold II of England in 1066 at the Battle of Hastings, was crowned king . He then consolidated his control and settled many of his followers in England, introducing a number of governmental and societal changes, including the end of feudalism.
Holy Roman Empire
Lands in western and central Europe ruled over first by Frankish and then by German kings for 10 centuries, from Charlemagne's coronation in 800 until the renunciation of the imperial title in 1806.