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Organs are composed of tissues, which are composed of cells. This is an example of which characteristic of life?

Living things have levels of hierarchical organization

The smallest unit that has all of the characteristics of life is the:


Which level of biological organization is composed of tissues?


Which sequence correctly lists the different levels of biological organization?

cells-tissues-organs-organ systems-organisms

A fossil was once a living organism but its tissues have now been replaced by minerals and it no longer exhibits most properties of life, except for:


Outside, the non-living world is unorganized and chaotic while inside the cell or organism there is a relatively constant environment; maintaining this environment is a process of:


A kernel of corn contains an embryo plant that is capable of becoming a complex plant with roots, stalks, leaves and ears of corn. This potential reflects which property of life?

growth & development

Which of the following is the correct order of levels of organization from small to large?

cell-tissue-organ-organ system-population-community-ecosystem

All members of one species within a particular area form a:


All populations in one natural setting plus their physical environment constitutes a(n):


When researchers test a new human cancer drug using mice, the mice constitute the:


Which of the following is not one of the six basic elements of living organisms?


The atoms contain

protons, neutrons, and electrons.

To measure the activity of the human brain during certain thought processes, a short-lived radioactive sugar is injected in the carotid artery and is utilized by those cells that are most active. This shows up on a PET scan and demonstrates the detection of:


Which of the following molecules is NOT a compound?

Oxygen O2

You can hold a water droplet between two fingertips held slightly apart. This is an example of what property of water?

cohesion of water molecules from hydrogen bonding

The water strider is an insect that skates across the water without sinking. The tips of its feet should be coated with molecules that are:


Since pure water is neutral, it contains:

equal number of hydrogen and hydroxide ions

If he pH of the saliva is slightly basic. Which of the following would therefore be an expected pH for saliva?


Similar to most liquids, water becomes most dense when it becomes solid (ice).


The study of all living things is called:


The basic unit of matter is called:


The cells keep a constant ph with the use of:


The ability to do work is a good indication of:


A solution with a pH of 5 would be considered:


___________ allows water molecules to stick together and form droplets.


The Most common elements in life are:

O, C, H, N

Organic macromolecules always:

contain carbon & hydrogen

Which is NOT a correct association of organic molecules?

fatty acids full of hydrogens are an unsaturated

DNA and RNA heredity molecules code for the sequence of amino acids but not sugars or lipids.


A genetic mutation can cause a change in the sequence of the 20 amino acids used to build proteins. Such a
change is a change to the protein's structure:

primary structure but will alter 2nd and 3rd

Glycogen and cellulose are:

polysaccharide used to store glucose/energy

Lactose and glucose are classified as:


All carbohydrate molecules have:

C, H, O

____ is found in muscles and accounts energy strength.


A fat molecule formation requires both glycerol and

fatty acids

Nucleic acids are polymers of:


Which association is NOT correct?


Antibodies and enzymes are organic compounds classified as:


The _____ structure of a protein consists of the sequence of the amino acids joined by polypeptide bonds.


If two amino acids are joined together, the resulting molecule is a(n):


The proposed cause of mad-cow disease, scrapie in sheep, and kuru in cannibals from the New Guinea highlands is a change in a brain protein. Disease victims appear to have a normal protein that should contain primarily coiled alpha helix changed conformation into a protein mainly made of pleated beta sheets. This is a change in the:

Secondary Structure

Which of these combinations would be found in a nucleotide?

Base-sugar-phosphate group

The backbone (sides of the ladder) of a nucleic acid is


The final shape of a protein is very important to its function. When proteins undergo an irreversible change in shape called ________________ they ________________ perform their usual functions.


Proteins are made from amino-acids which are connected together by:

peptide bonds

The main function/s of carbohydrates is/are:

structure and energy

Molecules such as glycogen and cellulose that are formed from long chains of individual sugar molecules are


DNA is considered this type of compound.

a. lipid, b. protein, c.carbohydrate
=d. no correct response

The shape of a protein affects what?


Cholesterol is an example of a saturated fatty acid.


Hemoglobin is a complex protein having a primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure.


When an egg is cooked on a stove, the albumin protein of the egg is said to be denatured.


All four DNA nucleotides differ in:


Lipids are used for:

energy storage

The main function/s of carbohydrates is/are:

structure and energy

Molecules such as glycogen and cellulose that are formed from long chains of individual sugar molecules are:


The unique nucleotide present in the RNA but not in the DNA is:


Which of the following is not a macromolecule used to build cells?


A complex carbohydrate from the following list is _____________.


Fats are found solid at room temperature depending on the amount of:


Hemoglobin and antibodies are samples of:


If one strand of DNA has the base sequence TATAGCGC, its complementary strand will have the sequence:


If one strand of a DNA molecule has the base sequence TATAGCGC, its mRNA will have the sequence:


A helicase is required when DNA replication because the DNA is usually


Genetic messages can be altered:

by mutation

Genes are passed through generations with what molecule?

deoxyribonucleic acid

Codon/anticodon are related to respectively:


Mutagens, such as the nicotine and UV, can cause:


Which of the following is not a type of RNA?


Each amino acid in a protein is specified by:

a codon

The three-nucleotide codon system can be arranged into _______ combinations.


The process of obtaining a copy of the information in a gene as a strand of RNA is called:


The process of taking the information on a strand of messenger RNA and building an amino acid chain that will become all or part of a protein molecule is called:


If an mRNA codon reads UAC, its complementary anticodon will be:


When an mRNA leaves the cell's nucleus, it next becomes associated with:

a ribosome

Erwin Chargaff, Rosalind Franklin, Francis Crick, and James Watson all worked on pieces of information relating to:

the structure of DNA.

Regarding the duplication of DNA, we now know that each double helix:

splits down the middle into two single helices, and each one then acts as a template to build its complement.

DNA polymerase can only add nucleotides to an existing mRNA.


The hereditary material found in all cells is:


Information from X-ray crystallographic data collected by _______ was used by Watson and Crick in their development of the model of DNA.


The X-ray diffraction photography of Rosalind Franklin was critical evidence:

Indicating that DNA has a double helix structure.

Chargaff's rules of DNA structure states that:

A =T.

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