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EGR240 Exam 1 Weeks 1-7 Midterm
Global energy issues, exam 1 material
Terms in this set (147)
In the context of our course, the DOE acronym has been used for?
Department of Energy
In the US, buildings account for how much of the energy use?
In the US, how much of the corn production was used for ethanol?
Briefly describe the importance of energy in modern society, including one of the specific examples discussed in class.
Black out in 1965 could cause catastrophe; think of being in surgery, in an elevator, etc. when the blackout happens. We rely on energy for everything from food, transportation, communication, and entertainment
What is humanity's top problem according to Richard Smalley?
Identify a recent major natural disaster discussed in class and briefly describe potential solutions for the future.
Hurricane Ike and Sandy were two natural disasters that greatly impacted the affected areas. Power was out, damage to homes, etc
What does TPES stand for?
Total primary energy supply: includes produced energy from natural resources plus imports
What does EI stand for?
Energy intensity = TPES / GDP
What does HDI stand for?
Human Development Index: measurement of well-beling
List the 4 main relationships between energy and countries.
Energy and GDP; Energy and GDP over time; EI and industrialization; energy and HDI
Briefly describe the relationship between EI and industrialization.
EI increases in early stages of industrialization, but then falls as the economies mature and use resources more efficiently
Briefly describe an example link between energy and HDI.
In the developed world, more energy use does not necessarily mean a better HDI. But for the developing world, like third world countries, more energy use has a linear relationship with HDI.
What is energy?
Capacity for doing work (delta W); energy = power*time
What are some energy units?
Joule = newton x meter; BTU (British Thermal Unit), toe, toc, quads, kilowatt-hours (energy = power x time)
What is power?
Work (energy) over time; rate at which work is done
What are some power units?
Watt = Joules / sec; horsepower; kilowatt
What is efficiency?
Useful energy out / energy in
Any conversion of energy results in...
Some loss of useful energy
Energy efficiency is always...
Less than 100%
What is the first law of thermodynamics?
Energy is neither created nor destroyed
What is the most efficient cycle?
Briefly describe what is a Sankey diagram.
Shows the flow of energy
List two reputable sources of Sankey diagrams and related data.
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and IEA (International Energy Association)
What is the typical annual energy use in the US, measured in quads?
Remarkable things about France and Germany energy flow as discussed in class.
France uses a lot of nuclear energy for electricity. Germany is moving from natural gas to coal because natural gas was imported from Russia in the past, but Germany wanted to be more self sufficient.
Which were the major sources of energy in the pre-industrial era?
Water, wind, human/animal labor, biomass
Provide an example for a very large and powerful wind turbine as per the class teachings.
Vestas wind turbine
What major event/development caused the change in the pattern of energy usage and sources in the 1700s?
Industrial revolution and the steam engine
List three types of fossil fuels.
Coal, oil, natural gas
Briefly describe the content of a Fisher Pry diagram and its use for energy.
Used to describe how people transition from one technology to another
What was the first country to transition to coal?
What percent of the world TPES is made of fossil fuels?
What is peat?
Decaying biomass accumulated in wetlands
What type of coal has the highest energy intensity and carbon?
What is the type of coal with the lowest carbon?
What percent of coal in the US is used for generating electricity?
What is coke?
Gradual heating of coal in absence of oxygen, used in metalmaking
What are the US largest regions for coal production?
Western region (55%)
What are the largest US states for coal production?
Wyoming is the largest by majority, followed by WV and KY
What are the main uses of coal in the US?
How much of the electricity is currently produced from coal in the US?
List 3 factors influencing the price of coal.
Location and transportation, ease of minding, heat content, sulfur content, ash content, regulations
Which has the highest energy density per mass?
Which of the following is not considered as a fossil fuel?
In the US, how much of the energy that goes into electricity generation ends up as waste, before use by any industry or consumer?
Efficiency of energy conversion is defined as:
Useful energy out / energy in
The ideal energy efficiency of a thermal energy conversion has what name?
Which of the following energy sources typical use traditional thermal energy conversion systems to generate electricity?
Nuclear, solar thermal, biofuels, fossil fuels, geothermal
What is typically the efficiency considered for a hydroelectric plant?
The start of the modern oil era is associated with drilling the first oil well. Where was this first well?
Historically, oil was used for many reasons. The start of large scale oil drilling in the mid 1800's was prompted by
A shortage of whale oil for lamps
The largest conventional oil field ever found, the Ghawar oil field, is found in what country?
M. King Hubbert was a geologist with Shell oil that predicted what?
US conventional oil production was going to peak in the 1970s
Natural gas is commonly sold in units of Mcf, which stands for
A thousand cubic feet
The primary component of natural gas is what chemical?
Which of the following are common ways to store natural gas?
Underground caverns, oil or gas fields, compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied natural gas (LNG)
Fracking means what?
Fracking is a drilling technique in which cracks are created in gas source rocks
Which of the following are places where natural gas is often found?
With coal deposits, with oil deposits, as deposits in porous sandstone, in shale rocks
What country is the leading country for LNG exports?
Which country is the leading country for gas pipeline exports?
In the Us, what are the two largest uses of natural gas, each accounting for roughly a third of all natural gas use?
Electricity generation and industrial
Which nation was the first to have large scale production of shale gas?
What are some major factors that affected the price of natural gas in the US in the last ten years?
Seasonal weather, weather events such as hurricanes, economic rises and falls like recessions, and new drilling technologies
Which natural isotope of uranium is easy to split and so is made concentrated for nuclear reactors?
Which item below is a form of light water reactor that keeps the reactor cooling water within the reactor containment area, using a second water loop to carry steam to the turbines?
PWR (Pressurized water reactor)
France is the country with the highest percentage of their electricity from nuclear power. What was a primary reason mentioned that initially made Franche pursue nuclear power so heavily?
France had its oil imports cut off in the 1970's and so decided to pursue nuclear power to prevent such risk to its energy supply in the future.
Which type of nuclear reaction is currently used for nuclear electricity generation?
Which of the following countries was mentioned as expanding its nuclear electricity generation?
What nuclear reaction powers the sun?
In the empire state building what was one energy efficiency improvement?
Energy savings measures in the US have the potential for how much energy savings?
30 quads, or about 30%
What are ways in which energy savings can be encouraged?
Outlaw inefficient technologies, inform people of what other people are doing, raise the cost of energy or reduce the cost of improvements, educate people on energy choices
Which sector has seen the largest reduction in energy intensity in the past 20 years?
The rebound effect, or Jevons Paradox, states what?
Energy efficient technologies can actually lead to more total energy use
EROI is the ratio of what?
Usable energy out to energy invested
Which of the following has the highest EROI?
What has the highest EROI of fossil fuels?
What is the trend of oil's EROI?
The EROI of oil has been declining
EROI for corn based ethanol is in what range?
Less than 2:1
Energy payback: how many years of energy output is necessary to replace the energy used for manufacture of solar PV?
About two years
Which country is the largest producer of coal?
Why is the US importing coal and from which country?
US is importing coal from Columbia; the cost competitiveness (buying less) and close location
What percentage of US energy is provided by petroleum, and what are the main uses for it?
35% of US energy is provided by petroleum/oil. Used for transportation and industry
Name 3 of the top 5 US states producing oil
Alaska, Texas, California
From what country does the US import most of its petroleum?
What is the major chemical component of natural gas?
What are the two primary uses of natural gas?
Heat and electricity generation
What types of geological formations is natural gas found?
Gas fields, oil fields, coal fields, shale gas, tight gas
What are some advantages of natural gas vs. other fossil fuels?
Natural gas burns more cleanly than other fuels, as well as is more efficient and has a fast ramp up time in electricity generation
What are common units for measuring natural gas?
By energy; Therm (100,000 BTU) and MMBTU (million BTU)
How is natural gas typically stored?
Underground, on vehicles, or on ships
Explain what is CNG.
Compressed natural gas kept at high pressure but still gas form. It is normal temperature and is transporting in small volumes on vehicles.
What is LNG?
Liquefied natural gas kept at low pressure to a liquid state and transported in large volumes on ships. Higher energy/volume than CNG
What is hydraulic fracturing? Why is this important?
Method of extracting natural gas
What are the basic types of nuclear reactions?
Fission and fusion
What type of nuclear reaction is used in electricity generation?
What type of nuclear reaction is used in the sun?
What naturally occurring isotope of uranium is used for a nuclear reaction and how common is it?
U-238, composes 99.3% of naturally occurring uranium
Name two ways in which natural uranium is enriched to increase the concentration of this isotope.
Gaseous diffusion, gas centrifuges
What level of isotope is needed for a typical power plant? How does this compare with what is needed for a bomb?
Power plant needs 3 to 5% U-235. A bomb needs more than 90%
Why does the US use light water reactors?
Light water reactors are compact and fit inside a navy ship
What are the two types of light water reactors? Which is more common today?
Boiling water reactor and pressurized water reactor
What are examples of other types of reactors in use?
How does nuclear power fit into the world electricity shares?
Which countries lead in nuclear energy generated and in the highest share of their electricity?
US and Franche lead on nuclear energy generated; France's nuclear energy has the highest share of their electricity
What states are the top 5 producers of natural gas?
Texas, Pennsylvania, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Ohio
What countries are the top 3 exporters of natural gas?
Russia, Qatar, Norway
Which country has the largest reserves of coal?
What are the proven reserves of coal, natural gas, and oil (in years)?
World: coal 110 years, natural gas 54 years, oil 52 years
Where are the biggest new oil areas located?
Ghawar, Saudi Arabia
List one example of nuclear power plant major accident or incident
Major categories of renewable energy sources
Biomass, hydropower, geothermal, wind, solar
Renewable energy sources are primarily derived from what original sources?
All renewables, except geothermal, are sourced from the sun
What percentage of electricity is generated by renewables in the world and the US, respectively?
World: 20%, US: 17%
What form of non-hydro renewable energy is currently the largest in the US?
What form of non-hydro renewable energy is the fastest growing?
List and briefly describe the main costs (categories) for electricity generation?
Capital, fuel, operation and maintenance, transmission
What does EIA stand for?
Energy Information Administration
What is the EIA's definition for renewable energy?
Energy that is derived from natural processes that are replenished constantly
Enumerate at least 5 types of renewable energy.
Geothermal, wind, solar, hydropower, biomass
What approx. Percentage of the world's energy is from renewable sources?
What is the trend of renewables in the US?
How do renewables compare in cost with fossil fuels?
Renewables have a higher cost of installation but cheaper over time
What type of generating technologies are expected to be installed in 2022 and in 2035-2040, according to EIA short and long-term forecasts?
Which renewable energy sources do not use a substantial amount of water?
Wind and solar pv
Where are the best places to locate wave capture technologies in the US?
Offshore on the west coast and northeast coast
What are the typical power densities of waves compared to solar/wind?
List two advantages of wave energy harvesting.
Low environmental impact and is not negative to aesthetics like onshore wind turbines
captures movement of device in water, device anchored on sea floor and movement of float creates kinetic energy which is then converted to electricity
oscillating water column
waves compressing air; compressed air drives turbine and thus generator
waves creating hydroelectric water reservoir; draining of reservoir power turbines, and thus electric generator
waves flexing device on surface; wave movement pumps oil through hydraulic motors to drive generators
How large is France's approx. annual energy use as a fraction of US' (which is approx. 100 quads)?
List and briefly describe four of the most effective measures in order to reduce the energy consumption in buildings.
Lower AC usage, better insulation, turn off lighting/appliances when not in use, update to more efficient technology
Define in your own words HDI; what are the most important two items considered for its calculation?
HDI is the measure of health/happiness/welfare in a country. The two most important items in consideration are life expectancy and education
Briefly describe what is a Sankey diagram and list two reputable sources of Sankey diagrams and related data.
Shows energy sources, uses, and flow; International Energy Agency and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
In the context of our class, what does the acronym IEA stand for?
International Energy Agency
In the video on the Empire State Building, what was the energy efficiency improvement discussed most?
The rebound effect (also called Jevons Paradox) states that?
Energy efficient technologies can actually lead to more total energy use
Energy savings is often referred to as?
The fifth energy
Identify and briefly explain two major advantages and two major disadvantages of oil.
Advantages: high energy density, ease of liquid, existing infrastructure; disadvantages are that it's nonrenewable and we could run out of oil, as well as it produces carbon dioxide
Which is the most energy dense of the fossil fuels?
Which of these two types of coal has higher energy density: bituminous or lignite?
Which country is NOT among the world's top 3 oil producers?
Out of the world's total electricity, renewables, including hydro, account for approx:
Which of the following regions has the largest installed capacity for solar PV?
California and Arizona
What is the EROI of a wind turbine?
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