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Terms in this set (178)
What is the circulation direction of the overall movement of currents in the South Pacific Subtropical Gyre?
What is the ultimate cause of the Coriolis effect?
the rotation of the earth on its axis
Name 4 reasons why there is uneven heating on the Earth
1. Same amount of energy spread over a larger area at higher altitudes
2. Radiant energy goes through more atmosphere at high latitudes
3. angle of incidence of incoming radiation is greater at higher latitudes
4. albedo is higher at higher latitudes due to more snow and ice
What is the most abundant gas in the atmosphere?
What is the second most abundant gas in the atmosphere?
What are the 3 primary factors that contribute to energy of the sea?
1. wind speed
Factors affecting primary productivity
1. availability of nutrients
2. solar energy
What are the 3 domains of life?
Which domain of life do all marine mammals belong to?
What are the names of the two primary groups of organisms based on how they move?
Plankton and nekton
What is the name for the group of organisms that live on or in the ocean floor?
Why is it advantageous to be a small marine organism?
1. easier to float
2. bigger S:A easier to take in nutrients and get rid of waste
Why will drinking sea water further dehydrate you?
Because the salty water will pull out the water from your cells.
What intrepid explorer was the captain for these voyages (1768-1780)?
John Harrison. What did he invent and what navigational problem did he address using it?
chronometer; he addressed finding longitude
What hypothesis is depicted by this diagram and when idd this occur?
Nebular hypothesis; 4.56 Ga
Giant Impact Hypothesis. What was thought to have happened during this event?
Formation of the moon
Name the type of crust and give its composition.
1. Continental crust; granite
2. Oceanic crust; basaltic
What is the approximate age of the Earth?
What were the main changes in the CO2 and O2 from the earliest of Earth to today?
There is about 21% of free oxygen today compared to the no free oxygen during early times. Today there is .037% of CO2 while during early earth there was a lot more.
What are the 3 factors for there being liquid water on Earth? (Goldilocks solution)
1. 24 hour rotation
3. Distance from the sun
What are two general techniques used for determining ocean bathymetry?
2. echo sounders
Name the four main compositional divisions of marine sediments and what material they derived from.
1. Biogenous; organisms
2. Lithogenous; rock
3. Hydrogenous; seawater
4. Comsogenous; "cosmos"
What are the 4 main types of organisms that form biogenic pelagic sediments?
diatoms, radiolarians, coccolithophers, and farminifers
What are the tests of each of these organisms made of?
siliceous and calcium carbonate
Which of these are photosynthetic and which are consumers?
Diatoms= consumers (siliceous)
radiolarians= photosynthetic (siliceous)
coccolithophers= photosynthetic (calcium carbonate)
foramininfers= consumer (calcium carbonate)
What is the latitude of the equator?
What is the latitude of the North pole?
90 degrees North
What is the latitude of the South pole?
90 degrees South
A region rapidly changing temperature with depth is called?
A region rapidly changing salinity with depth is called?
A region rapidly changing density with depth is called?
Name the seasonal positions.
What is the plane called?
What is the angle shown? (the tilt of the earth)
Name the lines and give the latitude.
1. Arctic circle; 66.5 North
2. Tropic of Cancer; 23.5 North
3. Tropic of Capricorn; 23.5 South
4. Antarctic Circle; 66.5 South
What is the result of the Coriolis effect on winds and currents in the southern hemisphere?
bends to the left
What is the result of the Coriolis effect on the path of hurricanes in the northern hemisphere?
bends to the right
What is the rotation direction of hurricanes in the southern hemisphere? northern?
What is the difference between weather and climate?
weather= the state of the atmosphere at a given time and place
climate= the longterm average of weather
What are the three main sources of damage property and loss of life from hurricanes?
3. Storm surge
What is the difference between sea ice and Glacier ice?
sea ice= the sea freezing and forming ice
glacier ice= ice forming on land and then falling into the sea
What is the circulation direction of the overall movement of currents in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre?
Ekman transport. North? South?
The Ekman Spiral is driven by?
The Coriolis Effect
The ratio of wave height to wavelength is called the:
Storm surges are generated by intense?
low pressure systems
Compared to eastern boundary currents in a gyre, which of the following statements is true for a western boundary current?
deeper current, increased current velocity, intensification in subtropical latitudes, narrower current. (all of the above)
The wind belt that corresponds to the doldrums is at?
at about the equator
The area of the Earth that is characterized by falling air masses and little precipitation is:
at about 30N and 30S latitude
The westerlies wind belt is located?
between 30 and 60 N latitude
The trade winds occur approximately:
between 0 and 30 N and S latitude
The Polar Easterlies occur approximately:
between about 60 and 90 N and S latitude
The strength of a hurricane is ranked from 1-5 on the?
A tsunami is caused by:
tectonic activity on the seafloor
The fetch refers to?
the distance over which wind blows without interuption
Waves that are moving faster than local wind and are sorted out by wavelength are called:
The difference between centripetal forces and gravitational forces is called the:
The center of mass of the Earth-Moon system is called the:
The barycenter follows:
a smooth orbit around the sun
The tide generating force varies:
inversely with the cube of the distance between the objects
Compared with a solar day, a lunar day:
is longer than a solar day.
What percentage of the world's water is in the oceans?
The first explorer to lead an expedition that circumnavigated the world was:
The nebular hypothesis suggests that:
all bodies in the solar system formed from an enormous gas cloud.
Scientists believe that the Earths's moon was most likely formed:
by a large body that struck Earth (mars sized)
The average depth of the oceans is about
The world's earthquakes and volcanism occur primarily
at or near the edges of plates
Deep ocean trenches are associated with:
Transform faults are plate boundaries characterized by:
Satellites are used to map the ocean floor because they:
are unaffected by surface weather, cover areas where ships have not produced surveys, can "see" larger areas of the seafloor at one time, shape of the ocean surface itself reflects large features on the seafloor below.
The correct order of marine provinces from the coast to the mid-ocean ridge is:
shelf, slope, rise, abyssal plain
Passive continental margins are characterized by all of the following except:
deep sea trenches
The Atlantic coast of North America is a good example of a:
passive continental margin
Which one of the following statements regarding continental and oceanic crust is TRUE?
continental crust is thicker and less dense than oceanic crust
The most likely place to find abundant manganese nodules is on the:
abyssal plain far from a continent
The amount of energy that is necessary to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree C is called the:
A breaker contains a mixture of ice and pure water at 0 degrees C. What happens to the temperature of the mixture as heat is added?
It remains constant until the ice melts then it begins to rise
The average salinity of seawater is:
What is the name for the weak bonds between water molecules in a liquid?
Hydrogen bonds from between neighboring water molecules because of:
polarity of water molecules
For water, the solid phase:
has a lower density than the liquid phase
When water evaporates from the ocean surface:
the remaining water is cooled
Which property of water causes coastal communities to have only moderate differences in daily highs and lows when compared to inland communities?
high heat capacity
Water has a ____ heat capacity than metals?
What are the two most abundant dissolved elements in seawater? Name a third element that is one of the major dissolved constituents.
Chloride, sodium, sulfate
Order from largest to smallest the 4 principal oceans on Earth.
Two processes that increase the salinity of seawater.
freezing ice caps
Two processes that decrease the salinity of seawater.
melting ice caps
run off rain
The titanic was sunk after hitting a big piece of sea ice that had drifted down from the polar ice cap. T or F?
Submergent coasts might have all of the following characteristic except...
Large deposits of sediment at the mouths of rivers are called
Surface ocean circulation is driven primarily by _____ and modified by ________.
wind; Coriolis effect and land
The maximum tidal current velocities are reported:
about half way between high and low tides
Narrow currents flowing across the surf zone toward the open ocean are called:
At high tide, the tidal current velocity is:
the vertical difference between high and low tides are called:
The side of the Earth that faces the moon experiences a high tide, the side of the Earth that is opposite from the Moon will have a:
Neap tides occur:
when the moon is at a quadrature
Spring tides occur about:
twice per month
What are the 3 main classes of fish and give an example for each?
1. bony fish (tuna)
2. jawless fish (agnatha
3. cartilage fish (shark)
Marine mammals of class mammalia
Carnivora, Sirenia, Cetacea
1. Sea otters
small no blubber, eat urchins (25% of body weight per day), thick fur
2. polar bears
What is maximum sustainable yield?
Maximum fisheries biomass that can be removed yearly and still be sustained by the fishery ecosystem.
What is the approximate transfer efficiency between trophic levels?
What is the limiting factor for biological productivity in the tropical waters?
What is the limiting factor for biological productivity in the norther temperate waters?
What is the limiting factor(s) for biological productivity in the polar waters?
both solar and nutrient limitations
What are 3 differences between seals and sea lions?
1. Sea lions have external ears and seals don't.
2. Sea lions can sit and seals can't
3. Sea lions can move forward while seals can't
What are the 3 orders of marine mammals?
What are the 2 orders of cetaceans?
What are two suborders of Odontoceti's?
Killer whales and dolphins
What are two suborders of Mysticeti's?
Blue whale and a humpback whale
Benthic organisms that live on the sea bottom are:
Benthic organisms that live in the sea bottom are:
Benthic organisms that live between particles on the sea bottom are:
Name 3 challenges to living on a rocky shoreline?
1. high energy
3. physical/chemical changes
Give an example of a Pinniped:
All organisms in class mammalia share certain characteristics. Name 3.
1. Warm blooded
2. Breathe air
3. Have hair or fur
What is climate?
the conditions of Earth's atmosphere that prevail in a particular region of an extended period of time.
What are Earth's five spheres (Earth's climate includes interactions of these)?
Negative feedback loop
more clouds=more radiation is reflected back to space
Positive feedback loop
more clouds, trap heat
Proxy data (give example as well)
indirect evidence using natural records of climate variablility
ex. tree rings, ice core data
Natural causes of climate change
1. Variations in Earth's orbit
2. Volcanic eruptions
3. Changes in solar energy
What are the two main factors contributing to the global rise in sea level:
1. Thermal expansion of water
2. Melting of glacier ice
How many nautical miles are on a pole to pole meridian?
60 min. in a degree, 180 degrees N to S
180 x 60= 10,800 nautical miles
What percentage of the world's oceans, under the Law of the Sea, is put under protection of coastal nations?
What is the Law of the Sea?
1. Coastal nation's jurisdiction
2. Ship passage
3. Deep ocean mineral resources
4. International disputes
What are the general characteristics of the coastal oceans?
1. Shallow ocean close to shore
2. Coincide with continental shelf
3. River runoff, tidal currents, and seasons affect water character
4. About 95% of total mass of marine life
What is isohaline?
the mixture of runoff and wind current
Is freshwater less dense or more dense?
less (has a well developed halocline)
What is an estuary?
a partially enclosed coastal body (mixing of freshwater runoff and ocean water)
Where are estuaries mostly developed?
at river mouths
What are the different types of estuaries? based on geologic origin?
1. coastal plain estuary
3. bar-built estuary
4. tectonic estuary
Coastal plain estuary
Drowned river valleys
ex. Chesapeake Bay
Flooded, glacially carved valleys
ex. Norway, Southeast Alaska
a body of water that is separated from sea by a barrier bar
ex. Chesapeake Bay and Laguna Madre
Formed by tectonic processes (folding, faults, faulting)
ex. San Francisco Bay
What are the types of water mixing estuaries?
1. Vertically mixed estuary
2. Slightly stratified estuary
3. Highly stratified estuary
4. Salt wedge estuary
patterns vary with location, season, tidal, or river conditions
Why are estuaries important?
they are important breeding and nursery grounds for many marine animals
Where and how are estuaries negatively affected? What are some examples?
Where there is a large human population; industry, manufacturing, waste disposal, shipping.
ex. Columbia River estuary and Chesapeake Bay estuary
Where are salt water marshes?
generally from 30-65 degrees latitude
Where are mangroves and what are they used for?
from the equator to 30 degrees latitude; they are nursery grounds for commercially important fish.
What are lagoons?
shallow water landward of barrier islands, they are hypersaline if there is high evaporation and less saline if there is a large amount of runoff.
Benefits of Coastal Wetlands
1. Important nurseries for fish and shellfish
2. Important for environmental Cleaners (remove inorganic nitrogen from sewage and agricultural runoff)
3. Excellent for shoreline protection (first line of defense against hurricanes and tsunamis)
Definition of life
1. ability to capture, store, and transmit energy
2. able to reproduce
3. able to adapt to the environment
4. able to evolve
contains a nucleus
"true" bacteria, single-celled, no nucleus
single-celled, "bacteria like", found in extreme environments
Five kingdoms of living things.
What is a species?
a population of organisms that share common characteristics, can breed, reproductively isolated from others
Classification based on movement.
1. Nekton (swimmers)
2. Plankton (float and drift with currents)
3. Plankter (individual plankton)
What is most of Earth's biomass made of?
Classification based on life cyclce
1. Holoplankton (whole life as plankton)
2. Meroplankton (part of life as plankton, then something else ex. nekton)
Classification based on size
1. Macroplankton (jellyfish)
What percentage of marine life are pelagic species?
What percentage of marine life are benthic species?
Most of earth's biomass comes from the 2% of pelagic species. True or False
How do waves form?
1. movement of air
2. mass movement into oceans
3. Sea floor movement
4. Gravitational pull of the moon and sun (tides)
What kind of wave was created at Lituya Bay in 1958? What caused it?
Ocean temperatures have a much narrower temperature range than on land, why?
The ocean water has a higher heat capacity than land.
During osmosis where does water move?
From a low conentration to high concentration
Examples of osmosis in salt/freshwater fish:
Saltwater fish= hypertonic
Freshwater fish= hypotonic
What does IPCC stand for?
Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change
What is the importance of coral reefs?
2. Biological diversity
(They effectively retain and recycle nutrients)
What is symbiosis?
a relationship between two species in which one or both benefit or neither or one is harmed.
What are types of symbiosis relationships?
Commensalism, mutualism, and parasitism.
What is parasitism?
a relationship between two organisms in which one benefits at the expense of the other.
What is mutualism?
a relationship between two organisms in which both benefit.
What is commensalism?
a relationship where one benefits and the other is unaffected.
What are some adaptions for avoiding prey?
Schooling, speed, transparency, camouflage, poisons, mimicry, symbiosis
What are the necessary conditions for coral reef development?
1. Strong sunlight
2. Strong wave/current action
3. Lack of turbidity
4. Salt water
5. Hard substrate for attachment
Cold blooded vs. warm blooded
Cold blooded (most fish)= white muscle tissue
Warm blooded= red muscle tissue
How do organisms stay above the ocean floor?
1. Gas containers
2. Ability to float
3. Keep swimming
What is the biggest unintentional oil spill?
Deep water horizon
What is the problem requiring osmotic regulation faced by hypotonic fish in the ocean? What would be a consequence in these fish if they did not regulate osmosis?
The hypotonic fish are less saline compared to the hypertonic ocean, so the fish would lose water, thus the consequence is the fish would dehydrate due to osmosis.
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