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Anatomy Exam 2
Terms in this set (39)
What are the functions of blood?
transportation, regulation(homeostasis), & protection
What are the physical characteristics of blood?
A. blood is denser and more viscous than water
B. Normal temperature of blood is 38 degrees Celsius (100 degrees Fahrenheit)
C. Normal pH range- 7.35-7.45
D. High O2 stats= bright red
Low o2 stats= dark red
E. Blood makes up about 8% of our body mass
What are the components of blood?
A. blood plasma (55%)
B. formed elements (45%) red blood cells, platelets, white blood cells
What is the origin of blood cells?
Hematopoiesis is the process of producing all blood cell types. This occurs in the red bone marrow. Every functional stem cell is derived from myeloid stem cells.
Describe the structure, functions, life cycle, and production of red blood cells (RBCs).
A. Biconcave disc shape
B. Strong and flexible
C. Lack nucleus (therefore can not divide)
D. Contain many hemoglobin
E. Highly specialized for their oxygen transport function
F. Lifespan= 120 days
E. Describe the structure, functions and production of white blood cells (WBCs).
A. Neutrophils (60-70%)
B. Life span= only a few days
C. Normal leukocyte levels= 5,000-10,000
D. Leukocytosis- indicates infection or inflammation (levels over 10,000)
E. Leukopenia- less than 5,000
Describe the structure, function, and origin of platelets.
A. Thrombopoiesis- platelet formation
B. Thrombopoietin hormone causes formation of platelets
C. promote the clotting of blood
Explain the importance of bone marrow transplants and stem cell transplants.
This helps to restore the bodys ability to create red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets
Describe the three mechanisms that contribute to hemostasis.
Vascular spasm- occurs immediately after damage
the vasoconstriction of smooth muscle in blood vessel walls
Platelet plug-platelet aggregation occurs when a platelet plug is formed by the sticking together of platelets
Coagulation- when a network of insoluble protein fibers called fibrin that trap blood cells to form a clot
Identify the stages of blood clotting and explain the various factors that promote and inhibit blood clotting.
Distinguish between the ABO and Rh blood groups.
A blood type- contains only the A antigen and anti-b antibodies
A+ blood type- contains both the A antigen as well as the Rh antigen but also has the anti-b antibodies
B blood type- contains only the B antigen and anti-a antibodies
B+ blood type- contains both the B and Rh antigens and anti-a antibodies
AB blood type- contains both A and B antigens and no antibodies
AB+ blood type- contains A, B, and Rh antigens and no antibodies
O blood type- neither A or B antigens but both A and B antibodies
O+ blood type- neither A or B antigens but Rh antigen and no both A and B antibodies
Explain why it is so important to match donor and recipient blood types before administering a transfusion
If the blood type is not matched to the donor blood type this will cause agglutination (clumping of RBC's) due to the antibodies in the blood reacting with the antigens.
Describe the location of the heart.
lies in the mediastinum (extends from the sternum to the vertebral column, from the first rib to the diaphragm, and between the lungs)
Describe the structure of the pericardium and the heart wall.
A. The pericardium surrounds and protects the heart.
B. Consists of two main parts: fibrous pericardium and the deeper serous pericardium
C. The heart wall has three layers. The epicardium is the external layer. The myocardium is the middle layer. The endocardium is the internal layer.
Discuss the external and internal anatomy of the chambers of the heart.
The right atrium receives oxygen-poor blood. The right ventricle pumps the oxygen-poor blood to the lungs. The left atrium receives oxygen-rich blood from the lungs where it is then pumped to the left ventricle.
Describe the structure and function of the valves of the heart.
A. atrioventricular valves (bicuspid and tricuspid valves) -moves blood from a higher pressure to a lower pressure
B. semilunar valves (aortic and pulmonary valves)- allow ejection of blood from the heart into arteries and prevent back flow of blood into the ventricles
Outline the flow of blood through the chambers of the heart and through the systemic and pulmonary
Right atrium, right ventricle, pulmonary trunk and pulmonary arteries, pulmonary capillaries(blood loses CO2 and gains O2), pulmonary veins, left atrium, left ventricle, aorta and systemic arteries, systemic capillaries(blood loses O2 and gains CO2), superior/inferior vena cava and coronary sinus
Discuss the coronary circulation.
Nutrients are not able to diffuse quickly enough for blood in the chambers of the heart to supply al layers of cells that make up the heart wall because of this the myocardium has its own network of blood vessels
Describe the structural and functional characteristics of cardiac muscle tissue and the conduction system of the
A.Cardiac muscle is shorter in length and less circular in transverse sections. Usually have one centrally located nucleus.
B. The cardiac conduction system is a network of specialized cardiac muscle fibers that provide a path for each cycle of cardiac excitation to progress throughout the heart. This makes the heart an effective pump.
Describe how an action potential occurs in cardiac contractile fibers.
Describe the electrical events of a normal electrocardiagram.
1. P wave- represents atrial depolarization
2. QRS complex- represents rapid ventricular depolarization
3.. T wave- represents ventricular repolarization
Describe the pressure and volume changes that occur during a cardiac cycle.
1. Atrial Systole- lasts about 0.1 second, atria is contracting and the ventricles are relaxed, 25 mL of blood is contributed to each ventricle
2. Ventricular Systole- lasts about 0.3 seconds, the ventricles are contracting, atria is relaxed, the left ventricle ejects about 70 mL of blood into the aorta so the end volume in each ventricle is 60 mL
3. Relaxation Period- lasts about .4 seconds, atria and ventricle are both relaxed , pressure in valve is 100 mmHg
Relate the timing of heart sounds to the ECG waves and pressure changes during systole and diastole.
S1 is caused by blood turbulence associated with the closure of the AV valves which is the systole. (lubb sound)
S2 is caused by blood turbulence associated with the closed of the SL valves which is the diastole (dupp sound)
Define cardiac output and describe the factors that affect regulation
of stroke volume.
A. Cardiac output is the volume of blood ejected from the left or right ventricle into the aorta each minute.
B. Factors that affect regulation of stroke volume are preload, contractility, and after load.
Outline the factors that affect the regulation of heart rate.
3. Age, gender, physical fitness, and body temperature
Explain the relationship between exercise and the heart.
Exercise can improve the health of the cardiovascular system by increasing oxygen demand of muscles and increasing maximal cardiac output
Contrast the structure and function of arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins.
A. carry blood away from the heart to other organs, large, and elastic (arteries)
B. small arteries (arterioles)
C. allow the exchange of substances between blood and body tissue, tiny vessels (capillaries)
D. small veins (venules)
E. blood vessels that convey blood from the tissues back to the heart, larger blood vessels (Veins)
Outline the vessels through which the blood moves in its passage from the heart to the capillaries and back.
Pulmonic valve, pulmonary artery, tiny capillary vessels in lungs, capillaries
Distinguish between pressure reservoirs and blood reservoirs.
Pressure reservoir -elastic fibers momentarily store mechanical energy
Blood reservoir- systemic veins and venules contain large percentages of blood so this is where it is stored
Discuss the pressures that cause movement of fluids between capillaries and interstitial spaces.
net filtration pressure- determines whether the volumes of blood and interstitial fluid remain steady or change
blood hydrostatic pressure- 35 mmHg
interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure- close to 0 mmHg
blood colloid osmotic pressure- 26 mmHg
interstitial fluid osmotic pressure- 0.1-5 mmHg
Explain the factors that regulate the volume of blood flow.
Size of lumen, blood viscosity, total blood vessel length
Explain how blood pressure changes throughout the cardiovascular system.
In the arterial system, as resistance increases, blood pressure increases and flow decreases. In the venous system, constriction increases blood pressure as it does in arteries; the increasing pressure helps to return blood to the heart.
Describe the factors that determine mean arterial pressure and systemic vascular resistance.
Mean arterial pressure (MAP) is the product of cardiac output (CO) and total peripheral vascular resistance (TPR). CO is the product of heart rate (HR) and stroke volume (SV); changes in either of these parameters also influence MAP.
SVR is primarily determined by changes in blood vessel diameters, changes in blood viscosity also affect SVR.
Describe the relationship between crosssectional area and velocity of blood flow.
As the crosssectional area increases the velocity of blood flow decreases and as the cross-sectional area decreases the velocity of blood flow increases
Describe how blood pressure is regulated.
baroreceptors in the brain
Define pulse, and define systolic, diastolic, and pulse pressures.
A. pulse- the alternate expansion and recoil of elastic arteries after each systole of the left ventricle creates a traveling pressure wave
B. systolic- first sound heard through the stethoscope
C. diastolic- last sound heard through the stethoscope
E. Pulse pressures- the difference between systolic and diastolic pressure (usually around 40 mmHg)
Define shock, and describe the four types of shock.
A. Shock is a failure of the cardiovascular system to deliver enough O2 and nutrients to meet cellular metabolic needs.
B. hypovelmic shock- an acute hemorrhage
C. cariogenic shock- the heart fails to pump adequately most often because of heart attack
D. vascular shock-infection, allergic reactions
E. Obstructive shock- occurs when blood flow through a portion of the circulation is blocked
Explain how the body's response to shock is regulated by negative feedback.
1. the activation of the renin-angiostension- aldosterone system
2. Secretion of antidiuretic hormone
3. Activation of the sympathetic division of the ANS
4. Release of local vasodilators
Describe and compare the major routes that blood takes through various regions of the body.
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