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Arts and Humanities
History of the Americas
Identificaion dual US History
Terms in this set (10)
what: philosophy that competition leads to the betterment of society through the survival of the fittest. Social Darwinists are opposed to regulating competition or assisting the poor
sought to apply Darwinian principles—intended for the biological world—to society. For Social Darwinists like William Graham Sumner, those less fit to survive the challenges of the age would necessarily find themselves at the bottom of the social ladder, consigned to jobs as unskilled laborers and domestic workers. For many captains of industry, it was a powerful legitimizing belief that enabled them to move beyond concerns about worker safety, housing, etc.
When/Where: In the late 1800s. United States.
Significance: It's been used to justify imperialism, racism, eugenics and social inequality at various times over the past century and a half.
what/when: - a sensationalized, exaggerated form of journalism that emerged in the late 1800s, early 1900s as a means to sell more newspapers -
why: to sell newspapers
significance: events from Cuba reported in this fashion served as propaganda for those who called for war with Spain. U.S. Navy ship that sank in Havana Harbor in 1898. The American newspapers ("yellow journalism") blamed the sinking of the Maine on the Spanish, leading to war with Spain.
what: one of the best known trials in American history because it symbolized the conflict between science and theology, faith and reason, individual liberty and majority rule -
when: 1925. Tennessee.
who: High school teacher John Thomas Scopes was charged with violating Tennessee's law against teaching evolution instead of the divine creation of man - Representing Scopes was the famed trial lawyer Clarence Darrow. Slick and sophisticated, Darrow epitomized the urban society in which he lived. - The prosecution was led by William Jennings Bryan, three-time presidential candidate and former secretary of state. The "Great Commoner" was the perfect representative of the rural values he dedicated his life to defend. -
significance: The trial was the first to be broadcast on live radio.
what: a roughly 50 mile long ship canal in Panama that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean (cuts across the Isthmus of Panama) -
why: built as a result of a desire to ship goods quickly and cheaply between the Atlantic and Pacific coasts and the military necessity of moving Naval fleets from one ocean to another -
who: one of Teddy Roosevelt's crowning achievements as President. (involved US, Colombia, and Panama)
when: project began in 1904, and opened the canal on August 15, 1914
what: Pendleton Act, gave federal jobs to those who scored well on a civil service examination,
why: ensuring that such appointments were made by merit rather than personal connections. To supervise government officials' work after the assassination of President James A. Garfield.
When/Where: 1883. United States.○
Significance: Commission jurisdiction was only over 10% of federal jobs, yet the President could expand that. Se
cured the government, making it slightly safer.
Homestead Act of 1862
Who/What: President Abraham Lincoln signed the Homestead Act which gave
citizens or future citizens up to 160 acres of public land if they lived on it,
improved on it and paid a small registration fee.
When/Where: Created on May 20, 1862 in the United States.
Why: To encourage Western migration of settlers.
Significance: One of the most enduring events in the move of Westward
Expansion. Gave nearly any man or woman a "fair chance".
March 1917. Sent from German Foreign Secretary Arthur Zimmerman, addressed to German minister in Mexico City. Mexico should attack the US if US goes to war with Germany (needed that advantage due to Mexico's promixity to the US). In return, Germany would give back Tex, NM, Arizona etc to Mexico.Intercepted by the
United States, never making it to Mexico.
When/Where: March 1, 1917. Germany to Mexico to the United States.
Why: Germany sent the telegram, because they wanted a lead in the war if it were
to ever happen between them and the U.S.
Significance: Useful for convincing the United States to consider sending their
men over to Europe to fight against Germany and officially join the war.
Acquisition of Puerto Rico
○ Who/What: Following the Spanish-American War, the United States acquired
Puerto Rico through the Treaty of Paris.
○ When/Where: The Treaty of Paris happened in 1899. Finally, in 1917, Puerto
Rico officially became a U.S. territory.
○ Why: It was a part of the terms within the Treaty of Paris where the U.S. acquired
many of Spain's possessions.
○ Significance: This was another piece of land within the Spanish territory, and this
acquisition was of strategic importance for the United States to remove Spanish
influence in the region to win the war.
Dawes Severalty Act
○ Who/What: Broke up Indian reservations and distributed land to individual
households. Leftover land was sold for money to fund the United States
government efforts to "civilize" Native Americans.
○ When/Where: Created on February 8, 1887 spreading along Native American
reservation land within the United States.
○ Why: A goal was to create divisions among Native Americans and take their land
for use of the U.S. government and white citizens.
○ Significance: Over 90 million acres of tribal land wasstripped from Native
Americans and sold to non-natives.
○ Who/What: When you combine all phases of manufacturing, from mining to
marketing, into one organization. Pioneered by Andrew Carnegie.
○ When/Where: Started in 1877 and is still being used today within American
businesses and many others.
○ Why: To help grow business and make supplies more efficient and reliable.
○ Significance: This controlled the quality of products at all stages of production
(mainly steel during the 19th century).
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