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Terms in this set (90)
Select the groups of organisms that are autotrophs.
True or false: Carbohydrates, fats, and proteins can be used as energy sources.
Which of the following best describes redox reactions?
Redox reactions involve the loss and gain of electrons.
Which of the following is a common feature of all electron carriers used during cellular respiration?
They can be reversibly oxidized and reduced.
During the breakdown of glucose, why is it beneficial to release energy a little at a time rather than all at once?
When energy is released a little at a time, cells can recover more energy in a useful form.
In terms of the source of their carbon, plants are __________
, and animals are ____________
Which of the following molecules in food can be used as energy sources by living organisms?
carbohydrates, fats, and proteins
What molecule is considered to be the energy currency of the cell and is used to do work?
The two reactions involved in a redox reaction are
___________ and ________
oxidations and reductions
Select all of the following that can be electron carriers.
-carriers that move within the membrane
-membrane-bound carriers that form a redox chain
The transfer of a high energy phosphate group from a phosphorylated organic molecule to ADP is referred to as which of the following?
How do cells oxidize their glucose?
A little at a time, so that more of the useful energy can be used to produce ATP
An example of a heterotroph would be which of the following?
During glycolysis, one molecule of _________is broken down into two molecules of pyruvate, driving the synthesis of ATP.
________ is the molecule that powers most of the cell's activities that require energy.
Select molecules that are produced during the second half (last 5 steps) of glycolysis.
ATP and pyruvate
Which of the following are end products of glycolysis?
NADPH, ATP, pyruate
What has to be true for substrate-level phosphorylation to occur?
The ΔG for the hydrolysis of a phosphate in a molecule has to be more negative than the ΔG for the hydrolysis of ATP.
During the reactions of glycolysis, one molecule of glucose is converted into how many molecules of pyruvate?
The first half of glycolysis does which of the following?
Converts a glucose molecule to 2 G3P molecules and requires ATP.
During the first phase of glycolysis which of the following occurs?
There is an ATP investment.
Put the steps of glycolysis in the order that they occur, beginning with the first step at the top.
1) Glucose is converted to a 6-carbon disphosphate sugar, requiring 2 ATP molecules.
2) A 6-carbon sugar is split to yield 2 molecules of G3P.
3) G3P is oxidized and phosphorylated, forming NADH and BPG.
4) Phosphates are transferred from BPG to ATP, and pyruvates are produced.
During the priming stage of glycolysis, two reactions involve the transfer of phosphates to prime glucose, and thus two molecules of which of the following are required to supply the phosphates?
In the cleavage reactions of glycolysis, a 6-carbon diphosphate sugar is split into which of the following?
Two 3-carbon monophosphate sugars.
Where does glycolysis occur?
How many ATP molecules are consumed during the priming reactions of glycolysis for one molecule of glucose?
During glycolysis, when a phosphate group is removed from 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate to create 3-phosphoglycerate, what else is produced?
During the first three reactions of glycolysis which of the following occurs?
Glucose is changed into a compound that can be readily cleaved.
Select the main changes that occur during glycolysis.
a) Glucose is converted to 2 molecules of pyruvate
b) NAD+ is reduced to NADH
c) ADP is converted to ATP via substate level phosphorylation
True or false: Only cells rich in oxygen can convert NADH back to NAD+.
Select the true statements about the first half of glycolysis (priming and cleavage reactions).
ATP is used.
A 6-carbon molecule is split to form two 3-carbon molecules.
Glycolysis results in a net gain of ______ATP per glucose molecule.
In the presence of oxygen, pyruvate can enter the citric acid cycle but must be converted to ________ ________ first.
Removal of a phosphate from phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) creates pyruvate and _______
Which of the following does not occur during glycolysis?
NADH is oxidized to NAD+
In eukaryotic cells, the oxidation of pyruvate produced from glycolysis takes place in what organelle?
NADH must be oxidized to _____ in order for glycolysis to continue.
Which of these statements correctly indicate the location of pyruvate oxidation?
eukaryotic cells, oxidation of pyruvate occurs in the mitochondria.
prokaryotic cells, oxidation of pyruvate occurs in the cytoplasm.
During fermentation most of the pyruvate produced during glycolysis to reduce NADH to
During the oxidation of pyruvate, this molecule is reduced.
In eukaryotes, the remaining energy in pyruvate is extracted in which organelle?
Select the processes that need to occur in order to release all three carbon atoms from pyruvate (once it has been produced by glycolysis) in the form of carbon dioxide.
Match each cell type with the location of pyruvate oxidation.
During cellular respiration, acetyl-CoA is formed during a reaction that also:
removes a CO2 from pyruvate
_____________ -CoA enters the Krebs cycle and combines with oxaloacetate to form the 6-carbon molecule ____________
True or false: During aerobic respiration, the oxidation of pyruvate is coupled with the oxidation of NADH.
The product of the second segment of the citric acid cycle is a four carbon molecule called which of the following?
Select the molecules produced by the oxidation of pyruvate.
Select all of the following that are true statements describing one round of the Krebs cycle.
-A 2-carbon group from acetyl-CoA enter the cycle
-One molecule of ATP is produced
-Four pair of electrons are removed from four of the intermediates in the cycle
When a carbon dioxide is removed from pyruvate, the product is a(n) ________ group, which then attaches to coenzyme A.
What molecule enters the citric acid cycle and combines with oxaloacetate to form citric acid?
In the process of aerobic respiration, what molecule is entirely consumed?
In eukaryotes, the electron transport chain occurs in the inner membranes of
Select all of the following that are produced with 1 turn of the citric acid cycle.
Select all of the following that are produced by one round of the Krebs cycle.
-3 molecules of NADH
-2 molecules of CO2
Order the complexes in the electron transport chain from first (electrons enter) to last (electrons exit). Start at the top.
• NADH dehydrogenase
• The bc1 complex
• The cytochrome oxidase complex
Select the products yielded by the passage of glucose through glycolysis and the citric acid cycle.
When electrons reach the end of the electron transport chain in mitochondria, the final electron acceptor is
The electron transport chain is composed of a series of membrane-associated
In the electron transport chain, how do NADH and FADH2 donate their electrons?
NADH donates to NADH dehydrogenase; FADH2 donates to ubiquinone
During the second half of the Krebs cycle, succinate undergoes several reactions to become which compound?
Prior to being transferred to oxygen, the last site of electrons in the electron transport chain is which of the following?
The cytochrome oxidase complex
The electrons donated to the electron transport chain by NADH activate ______ proton pumps, while those donated by FADH2 activate ______ proton pumps.
Oxidative respiration is made possible by its final electron acceptor which is which of the following?
True or false: The matrix of the mitochondrion generally has a more positive charge than the intermembrane space.
In the electron transport chain, the electrons from FADH2 release which of the following?
Less energy than those of NADH
During oxidative phosphorylation, the enzyme __________ ________
uses energy stored in a proton gradient to phosphorylate ADP and make ATP.
The flow of highly energetic electrons through the electron transport chain changes the _____of the pump proteins, which causes them to transport protons across the membrane.
A cell oxidizes an organic molecule producing 3 NADH molecules and 3 FADH2 molecules. How many ATPs (total) can be synthesized in the ETC from these molecules?
Match the following molecules with their role in regulating glucose catabolism.
citrate= inhibits phosphofructokinase
NADH= inhibits pyruvate dehydrogenase
ATP= inhibits phosphofructokinase, citrate synthetase, and pyruvate dehydrogenase
The mitochondrial matrix has what charge compared with the intermembrane space?
Select the molecules that many prokaryotes are able to use as final electron acceptors during anaerobic respiration.
The two electrons in _______ can be used to synthesize 2.5 ATPs in the ETC.
ATP is an allosteric inhibitor of the enzyme phosphofructokinase. As a result of this feedback mechanism, when levels of ATP are high, what process is directly inhibited?
Some organisms can use inorganic alternatives to oxygen as the final electron acceptor, such as sulfur or CO2. This process is referred to as what?
ATP is synthesized as _______ flow down their concentration gradient through ATP synthase.
Match each metabolic pathway with its description.
aerobic respiration=produces ATP using oxygen as a final electron acceptor
anerobic respiration= produces ATP using inorganic substances other than oxygen as final electron acceptors
fermentation= reduces organic molecules to recycle NAD+ so glycolysis can continue to produce ATP in the absence of oxygen
True or false: NADH and FADH2 donate electrons to the electron transport chain at the same point.
In the absence of oxygen, electrons generated by glycolysis are donated to organic molecules to recycle NAD+ in a process called
Which of these is not an example of a reduced organic compound that may be produced during fermentation?
, electrons generated by glycolysis are donated to organic molecules, which regenerates NAD+ so glycolysis can continue.
After proteins are broken down into amino acids, the removal of the nitrogen-containing side group is called which of the following?
The purpose of fermentation is to recycle which of the following?
In the process known as β oxidation, acetyl groups are removed from the end of which molecules to be combined with coenzyme A to produce acetyl-CoA?
An example of a reduced organic compound that may be produced during fermentation is ____________
Oxidation pathways of food molecules are interrelated. Which of these is an intermediate that links the breakdown of food molecules from different starting points?
The ______ containing group is removed from an amino acid in a process called deamination.
Almost all molecules that are catabolized for energy are converted into which of the following?
The catabolism of fatty acids produces which of the following that can be combined with coenzyme A and enter the Krebs cycle?
Select the molecules that are key intermediates in food oxidation pathways, intermediates that allow the interconversion of different molecules.
Pyruvate and Acetyl-CoA
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