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Nervous System/Senses Anatomy Test
Terms in this set (89)
autonomic nervous system
-A subdivision of the peripheral nervous system, Controls involuntary activity of visceral muscles and internal organs and glands.
-Uses two motor neurons and one ganglion to transmit an action potential
Somatic nervous system
-the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles
-carries commands away from CNS
Central Nervous system
-consists of brain and spinal cord
-contains both white and gray matter
Peripheral Nervous system
-consists of the nerves and ganglia outside of the brain and spinal cord
-subdivided into somatic and autonomic
sympathetic nervous system
-the division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations
-fight or flight
parasympathetic nervous system
-the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy
-rest and digest
cell bodies and unmyelinated fibers
BE ABLE TO LABEL NEURON
cells that support and protect neurons
Type of neuroglial cell in the CNS that wrap axons in a myelin sheath.
connect blood vessels to neurons
immune function, digest debris, kill bacteria
Supporting cells of the peripheral nervous system responsible for the formation of myelin.
Molecules that are stored in synaptic vesicles in axon terminals and carry out transmission across a synapse
ex. Acetycholine and norepinephrine
-the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron
1. When nerve impulses reach axon terminal, channels for Calcium open and Calcium enters terminal
2. Calcium stimulates synaptic vesicles to merge with presynaptic membrane, and neurotransmitters are released
3. Neurotransmitters diffuse across the synaptic cleft to the postsynaptic membrane, and they bind with receptor proteins
1. Resting potential: Axon is polarized, with more sodium ions on the inside and potassium ions on the outside (positive outside, negative inside)
2. Action potential: Stimulus causes sodium channels to open, and sodium floods into the inside of the cell (depolarization --> negative outside, positive inside)
3. Potassium channels then open to return to equilibrium, and potassium goes to the outside of the axon (repolarization)
4. Hyperpolarization occurs, meaning there are more potassium ions on the outside of the axon than sodium ions on the inside of the axon
5. The sodium-potassium pump returns conditions to equilibrium (pumps out 2 sodium for every potassium)
Describe action potential
sensory input, integration, motor output
What are the 3 main functions of the nervous system?
Level of stimulation needed to trigger a neural impulse
A signal transmitted along a nerve fiber.
-at the dendrites, signals can result in _________ that are then conducted away from the cell body by and axon
a simple, automatic response to a sensory stimulus
ex. Knee-jerk reflex, ankle-jerk reflex
ridges of the brain
shallow groove of brain
deep groove of brain, such as longitudinal ____________
Ascending tract of spinal cord
carries sensory info brought in by the spinal nerves up to the brain
Descending tract of spinal cord
-motor nerve tracts
-carry impulses in a downward direction to muscles and organs
three layers of connective tissue in which the brain and spinal cord are wrapped
Outermost layer of the meninges
middle layer of the meninges, web-like
Innermost layer of the meninges
What connects the two brain hemispheres?
BE ABLE TO LABEL BRAIN
-largest portion of brain, divided into right and left halves
-last center to receive sensory input and carry out integration before commanding voluntary motor responses
-higher thought processes required for learning, memory, language, speech
-Primary motor area
-Broca's area (motor speech)
-primary olfactory area
-auditory association area
-primary auditory area
-Wernicke's area (sensory speech)
-primary somatosensory area
-somatosensory association area
-primary visual area
-visual association area
-bridge of white matter connecting 2 brain hemispheres
-shares info/messages between both sides
-outer layer of gray matter that covers the cerebral hemispheres
-sensation, voluntary movement, though processes
-associated with emotions and drives, also learning and memory
-rage, pain, pleasure, sorrow
-consists of hypothalamus and thalamus, and hippocampus
A neural center located in the limbic system that helps process short term memory into long term memory
hypothalamus and thalamus
helps maintain homeostasis by regulating hunger, sleep, thirst, body temperature, water balance, etc
-also contains the pineal gland
sensory relay center
-balance and coordination
-processes sensory input and coordinating movement output and balance
midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata
-relay station for tracts passing between the cerebrum and spinal cord or cerebellum
-reflex centers for visual, auditory, and tactile responses
bridge between cerebellum and rest of CNS
-also functions with medulla oblongata to regulate breathing rate, has reflex centers concerned with head movements in response to visual and auditory stimuli
Part of the brainstem that controls vital life-sustaining functions such as heartbeat, breathing, blood pressure, and digestion.
assists the cerebellum in maintaining muscle tone, and assists medulla oblongata and pons in their functions
-helps rouse a sleeping person
1. Receptor: senses pain, heat, etc.
2. Sensory Neuron (afferent pathway) sends info to the CNS.
3. CNS decides response to stimulus.
4. Motor neuron carries the message from the CNS to the effector. (efferent pathway)
5. Effector: acts out the decision made by the CNS (such as pulling the hand away from the flame)
Describe a reflex arc
-12 pairs of nerves that carry messages to and from the brain
-involved in cranial reflexes (blinking when object is near)
the nerve that carries smell impulses from the nose to the brain
the nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain
consists of the lacrimal gland and a series of ducts that drain the tears into the nasal cavity
-loss of neurons
-blood flow decreases
-CSF production declines
-decreased nerve conduction
Effects of Aging on Nervous system?
Sight, hearing, touch, smell, taste
What are the 5 senses?
respond to touch, pressure, vibration, stretch, and itch
respond to changes in temperature
-stimuated by pain
respond to chemicals (smell, taste, changes in blood chemistry)
respond to light (rods and cones)
Taste buds are chemoreceptors that detect sour, salty, sweet, bitter, and umami (savory)
1.) Receptors for smell: Olfactory Cell- located in mucous membrane of upper nasal cavity
2.) Odor detected when molecules of gaseous substance enters nose- dissolves in mucous and stimulates olfactory nerve
3.) Responds to 50 basic odors
4.) Continual exposure to specific odors leads to inability to detect that odor- adaptation
5.) Both taste and smell result from chemical stimulations
1) Light enters the eye through the cornea.
2) From the cornea, the light passes through the pupil.
3) Light hits the lens.
4) Next, light passes through the vitreous humor. This is the clear, jelly-like substance that fills the center of the eye. It helps to keep the eye round in shape
.5) light reaches the retina.
The clear tissue that covers the front of the eye
colored part of eye, controls the amount of light that passes through
-focuses light rays onto the retina
-Ciliary muscles control the shape of eye to focus on objects at various distances
the light-sensitive inner surface of the eye, containing the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual information
- sound waves enter and reach the middle ear to vibrate the eardrum
- pinna collects sound waves
- Eardrum vibrates ossicles (malleus, incus, stapes), where the vibrations continue to the inner ear.
- When the sound vibrations reach the cochlea, they push against specialized hair cells that detect the vibrations and turn them into electrical impulses.
- The auditory nerve connects the cochlea to the auditory centers of the brain. When the electrical nerve impulses reach the brain, they are interpreted as sound.
LABEL THE EAR
pinna, auditory canal
What are the parts of the outer ear?
incus, malleus, stapes, tympanic cavity and membrane, auditory tube
Parts of middle ear?
cochlea, semicircular canals, vestibule (urticle and saccule- important for gravitational equilibrium)
Inner ear parts?
-loss of vision (cataracts, glaucoma)
-loss of hearing
Effects of aging on senses
BE ABLE TO LABEL EYE
white of the eye, maintains shape of the eye and protects inner tissue
Node of Ranvier
gap in the myelin sheath, between Schwann cells
Central nervous system neurons that internally communicate and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs
neurons that carry outgoing information from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands
neurons that carry incoming information from the sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord
Hearing and equilibrium
Function of ear?
- 3 pairs, 6 muscles in total
- controlled by 3 cranial nerves: oculomotor, abducens, and trochlear
=Superior rectus: rolls eyes upward
= Inferior rectus: rolls eyes downward
= Lateral rectus: turns eye outward, away from midline
= Medial rectus: turns eye inward, toward midline
= Superior oblique: rotates eye counterclockwise
= Inferior oblique: rotates eye clockwise
Describe eye muscles?
-maintenance of balance when the head and body are suddenly moved or rotated
- 3 semicircular canals help the brain understand body position and keep balance
-the maintenance of balance when the head and body are motionless
- utricle (back-forth) and saccule (up-down) located in the vestibule are important
The lens changes its shape in order to focus on distant and near objects
-near: lens contracts
-far: lens is relaxed, flat
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