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Sociology Ex 2- Ch 6
Terms in this set (75)
A young woman graduates from high school with honors and attends a prestigious university, where she completes her degree; she gets a good job; she marries and starts planning for the future. This woman's behavior is an example of __________.
Differential association explains________________________________.
how one may be socialized into deviance
__________ crimes include offenses such as prostitution, illegal gambling, and pornography.
According to Merton's strain theory, __________ occurs when people challenge both the approved goals and the approved means for achieving them yet advocate an alternative set of goals or means.
In the early twentieth century, drug laws were actively enforced in an effort to control immigrant workers, especially the Chinese, who were being exploited by the railroads and other industries. This example supports the perspective of __________.
Applying Merton's strain theory, skid-row alcoholics and drug addicts illustrate the concept of __________.
__________ seeks to reduce criminal activity by instilling a fear of punishment in the general public.
__________ crime is a business operation that supplies illegal goods and services for profit.
A branch of the conflict perspective, Marxist/critical theory views deviance and crime as a result of __________.
the capitalist economic system
__________ argue that the lifestyles considered deviant by political and economic elites are most likely to be defined as illegal.
__________ crime refers primarily to actions such as murder, forcible rape, robbery, and aggravated assault and involves force or the threat of force against others.
The sociological term for the systematic practices that social groups develop in order to encourage conformity to norms, rules, and laws and to discourage deviance is __________.
A __________ is a minor crime that is typically punishable by less than one year in jail.
The National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) was developed by the __________.
Bureau of Justice Statistics
The __________ is compiled by the FBI and is the major source of information on crimes reported in the United States.
Uniform Crime Report
Sutherland's __________ theory states that people have a greater tendency to deviate from societal norms when they frequently interact with individuals who are more favorable toward deviance than conformity.
__________ argues that deviant behavior is learned in personal interaction with friends and family.
People in which of these racial/ethnic groups have been the most overrepresented in official crime statistics?
__________ refers to the use of personal judgment by police officers, prosecutors, judges, and other criminal justice system officials regarding whether and how to proceed in a given situation.
Sociologist __________ believed that deviance is rooted in societal factors such as rapid social change and lack of social integration among people. As social integration (bonding and community involvement) decreased, deviance and crime increased.
Becker coined the term __________ to refer to those who use their own perspectives on "right" and "wrong" to create the rules about what constitutes deviant or conventional behavior.
According to Merton's __________ theory, people feel tension when they are exposed to cultural goals that they are unable to obtain because they do not have access to culturally approved means of achieving those goals.
The United States has 5 percent of the world's population and accounts for __________ of the world's prison population.
__________ is based on the assumption that offenders who are detained in prison or are executed will be unable to commit additional crimes.
A minister who is opposed to war conducts a nonviolent protest at a local military installation, thus committing a trespassing violation. Applying Merton's typology from strain theory, this behavior is an example of __________.
The median age of an individual committing __________ is typically older than that of those committing other types of crimes.
Which of the following would be classified as a status offense?
Fifteen-year-old Ivy runs away from home.
__________ seeks to return offenders to the community as law-abiding citizens by providing therapy or vocational or educational training. Offenders are treated, not punished, so that they will not continue their criminal activity.
Organized crime is generally not associated with __________.
From a sociological perspective, definitions of deviance originate_______________.
with the people who witness or judge the behavior
__________ social control takes place through the socialization process.
According to Merton's strain theory, __________ occurs when people accept culturally approved goals and pursue them through approved means.
A person may shoplift an item of clothing from a department store and be apprehended and labeled as a "thief," subsequently accept that label, and then go on to shoplift more in the future. This future behavior is an example of __________.
A socioeconomically disadvantaged teenager decides that she must resort to crime in order to buy some clothes she wants. This teenager's behavior is an example of __________.
The term __________ refers to illegal or unethical acts involving the use of power by government officials or illegal/unethical acts perpetrated against the government in efforts to usurp power.
__________ is defined as "the calculated, unlawful use of physical force or threats of violence against persons or property in order to intimidate or coerce a government, organization, or individual for the purpose of gaining some political, religious, economic, or social objective."
According to Lemert, some people engage in __________ deviance, which occurs when a person who has been labeled a deviant seeks to normalize the behavior by relabeling it as nondeviant.
According to Merton's strain theory, __________ occurs when people abandon both the approved goals and the approved means of achieving them.
Criminologists use the term __________ to refer to the greater number of programs, services, facilities, and organizations responsible for the management of people accused or convicted of criminal offenses.
The use of ethnic or racial background as a means of identifying criminal suspects is called __________.
__________ crimes include robbery, burglary, larceny, motor vehicle theft, and arson. In most of these crimes, the primary motive is to obtain money or some other desired valuable.
During the mid-1970s, advocates of __________ theory predicted that women's crime rates would increase significantly as a result of the women's liberation movement.
Which of these would not be considered corporate crime?
The symbolic interactionist approach to deviance includes all of the following except the ___________ theory.
The text argues that __________ are better able to address the problem of juvenile offenders than are military-style boot camps.
__________ is the term for any behavior, belief, or condition that violates significant social norms in the society or group in which it occurs.
Research shows that __________ are more likely to be perceived as members of the dangerous classes and receive stricter sentences in criminal courts.
young, single, urban males
__________ crime refers to illegal acts committed online, such as FBI-related scams, nonauction of merchandise, and overpayment fraud.
The __________ argues that women's crime originates in patriarchy (male domination over females). This approach focuses on social forces that shape women's lives and experiences and shows how exploitation may trigger deviant behavior and criminal activities.
radical feminist approach
Based on the symbolic interactionist theory of sociologists Charles H. Cooley and George H. Mead, the __________ theory states that deviance is a socially constructed process in which social control agencies designate certain people as deviants, and they, in turn, come to accept the marker placed upon them and begin to act accordingly.
__________ refers to a violation of law or the commission of a status offense (such as cutting school or running away from home) by young people.
Sometimes people give up on societal goals but still adhere to the socially approved means for achieving them; Merton termed this __________.
__________ are most likely to emphasize that the study of deviance reveals how the powerful exert authority over the powerless by taking away their free will to think and act as they might choose.
Organized crime thrives primarily because________________________.
there is a great demand for illegal goods and services
Durkheim used the term __________ for the condition in which social norms are weak, conflicting, or absent.
Sociologists __________ suggested that, for deviance to occur, people must have access to illegitimate opportunity structures—circumstances that provide an opportunity for people to acquire through illegitimate activities what they cannot achieve through legitimate channels.
Richard Cloward and Lloyd Ohlin
The ________ theory of deviance states that deviant behavior occurs when a person weighs the costs and benefits of deviant behavior and concludes that the benefits outweigh the risks.
According to functionalists, acts of civil disobedience (including lunch counter sit-ins and bus boycotts) exemplify which function of deviance?
deviance promotes social change
Criminologist Ronald Akers created the __________ theory, which combines differential association theory with elements of psychological learning theory, suggesting that both deviant behavior and conventional behavior are learned through the same social processes.
Hirschi's control theory is based on the importance of __________ in determining the likelihood of deviant behavior.
When a label of deviance is based on a person's intentional or inadvertent actions, it is considered __________.
Merton described how people adapt to cultural goals and the approved ways of achieving them through ___________.
A __________ is a behavior that violates criminal law and is punishable with fines, jail terms, and/or other negative sanctions.
According to Merton's strain theory, __________ occurs when people accept society's goals but adopt disapproved means for achieving them.
Walter Reckless suggested that many people do not resort to deviance because of __________, which may include supportive family and friends, reasonable social expectations, and supervision by others.
Hirschi's social bonding theory emphasizes__________________________.
attachment to other people
Which of the following people would most likely be considered deviant because of an unusual belief system?
Terri is convinced that the government is using vaccines to intentionally make people ill.
The sociological term for a spoiled or devalued social identity is __________.
According to sociologist Edwin Lemert, several stages may occur in the labeling process. __________ deviance refers to the initial act of rule breaking.
In contemporary societies, the primary mechanism of external social control is __________.
the criminal justice system
A group of protestors appeals their arrest on the grounds that police officers overstepped their authority. The case goes to court. This scenario best illustrates which of these functions of deviance?
deviance clarifies rules
Almost 70 years ago, Sutherland coined the term __________ for what is now called occupational crime.
__________ refers to the use of negative sanctions that proscribe certain behaviors and set forth the punishments for rule breakers and nonconformists.
external social control
The text uses the term __________ for the trafficking across nations' borders in drugs, weapons, and nuclear weapons.
A person may shoplift an item of clothing from a department store but not be apprehended or labeled as a deviant. The person may subsequently decide to forgo such behavior in the future. This example illustrates what stage of deviance?
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