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Anatomy Midterm Questions
Terms in this set (13)
Suspected of having a rare genetic disorder, a patient and her daughter both have biopsies of their thymus. The biopsy of the thymus of the daughter shows a highly cellular thymus that contains many lymphocytes, while the maternal thymus appears less robust, with large areas of adipose tissue and numerous inclusions. What can you conclude based upon the results of this test?
Based on this test, I can conclude that there is no sign of any issue or disorder. The thymus typically degenerates over time so the histological features of the maternal thymus, even the sections of adipose tissue and the Hassall's corpuscles, are totally normal.
Explain the acronyms MALT. What is its function?
MALT stands for mucosal associated lymphoid tissue and includes the tonsils and lymphoid patches in the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems. MALT's primary function is to produce and secrete IgA across mucosal surfaces in specific antigens.
Explain the structural organization of blood flow through the spleen.
Blood enters the spleen through the splenic artery and flows into central arteries, sheathed capillaries, and pencillary arteries. It then enters the sinusoidal space and leaves the spleen through the splenic vein.
Explain the organization of B- and T-cells in the lymphatic tissue.
B-cells are usually found in follicles within the cortex, while T-cells are typically located in the paracortical spaces, which are between the follicles of the B-cells.
How might you distinguish a venule from a lymphatic capillary?
Lymphatic capillaries are very small, thin-walled vessels that are closed on one end and located all throughout the body except for the CNS and non-vascular tissues. Venules are even smaller structures with thin, non-elastic walls. Venules allow blood to return from the capillary beds in order to drain into the veins, the larger blood vessels.
What are the six defenses that provide the body with a defensive capability known as non-specific immunity?
Skin membranes, mucous membranes, antimicrobial chemicals, natural killer cells, phagocytosis, inflammation and fever are all defenses that provide the body with a defense capability known as non-specific immunity.
What are the 4 signs of inflammation, and how does inflammation serve as a protective function?
The four signs of inflammation are warmth, redness, swelling and pain. Inflammation serves as a protective function by alerting the adaptive immune system, setting up repair, disposes of debris and pathogens, and prevents the spread of damage.
Right side of heart (with aorta)
2. left pulmonary
3. left atrium
4. left pulmonary veins
5. mitral valve
6. aortic valve
7. pulmonary valve
8. left ventricle
9. papillary muscle
10. interventricular septum
Left side of the heart (with superior vena cava)
1. superior vena cava
2. right pulmonary artery
3. right pulmonary veins
4. right atrium
5. right pulmonary veins
6. fossa ovalis
7. pencitinate muscles
8. tricuspid valve
9. right ventricle
10. chordae tendinase
11. trabuclae carneae
12. inferior vena cava
Lymphatic system (left side of the body)
1. internal jugular vein
2. entrance of right lymphatic duct of the vein
3. entrance of thoracic duct of the vein
4. thoracic duct
5. cisterna chyli
6. aorta (in middle)
7. collecting lymphatic vessels
Lymphatic system (right side of the body: regional lymph nodes)
1. cervical nodes
2. Axillary nodes
3. inguinal nodes
Generalized structure of arteries
1. Tunica intima
3. subendothelial layer
4. internal elastic membrane
5. tunica media (smooth muscle and elastic fiber)
6. external elastic membrane
7. tunica externa (collagen fibers)
8. vasa vasorum
9. valve (in bottom cut out part)
10. capillary network (in between)
11. lumen (on bottom)
Generalized structure of capillaries
1. basement membrane
2. endothelial cells
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