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74 terms

Skin lesions and shapes

Nursing skin lesions and shapes of lesions
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telangiectasia
Permanant superficial vascular dialation: spider veins, connective tissue diseases, radiation skin damage
macerated
swollen, soft by increase in water content
verrucous
irregular, rough, convoluted surfaces
oozing
breakdown of small vesicles with serum over skin surface. acute dermititis
petechiae
minute hemorrhagic spots that cannot be blanched
koebner phenomenon
new lesion after trauma/ psoriasis
auspitz's sign
pinpoint bleeding after a scale is removed
nikolsky's sign
pushing a blister causes further separation of the dermis
herpetiform
vesicular lesions clustered on a erythematous base
disseminated
scattered lesions, diffusely arranged
zosteriform
unilateral arrangement of lesions in the cutaneous distribution of a nerve route/dermatome. (e.g. Herpes zoster)
annular
round to oval with a center clearing
coalescing
lesions merge into each other
linear
Scratch, line, or stripe.
macule
(<1cm dia.) flat primary lesion. circumscribed. e.g. Freckles flat nevi, petechiae, measles. (top right pic is a macule, bottom right is a patch)
patch
(a macule that is >1 cm dia.) flat primary lesion. Circumscribed.
papule
( <1cm dia.) something you can feel (elevation, solid, circumscribed). solid or cystic. primary lesion. e.g. Elevated nevus(mole), wart (verruca)
nodule
(>1cm and <2cm dia.) solid or cystic. primary. Deeper than papule. e.g. Xanthoma, fibroma, intradermal nevi.<pic _0147_2p.jpg>
tumor
(nodule >2cm dia.) solid or cystic. primary. Deeper into dermis. e.g. Hemangioma, lipoma
plaque
(papules coalesce to >1cm dia.) plateau, sometimes crusted. primary. e.g. Psoriasis (pic), lichen planus.
erythema, purpura
examples of macules
cafe au lait spot
Large round or oval patch of light brown pigmentation, usually normal. >6 macules >1.5cm diameter indicate neurofibromatosis
dermatofibroma
example of nodule
cyst
Encapsulated, fluid-filled cavity in dermis or subcutaneous layer. Tense, elevated skin. |e.g. Sebaceous (follicular) cyst
psoriasis
example of plaque
scale
extremely dry areas of thin plates of cornified epidermal cells that form flakes on the skin; secondary.
eczema
example of scale
wheal
Superficial, raised, transient, erythematous; slightly irregular due to edema. e.g. Mosquito bite, allegic reaction, demographism.
urticaria
Coalescing wheals to form extensive reaction. Intensely pruritic.
vesicles
( <1cm in dia.) circumscribed, elevated. primary. serous. "blister". e.g. Herpes simplex, early varicella, herpes zoster (shingles), contact dermatitis.
herpes zoster
example of vesicles
bulla
( >1cm vesicle) large primary vesicle. Superficial in epidermis. Usually single chambered. e.g. Friction blister, burns
pustule
primary lesion; vesicle containing purulent exudate|e.g. Impetigo, acne
atrophic scar
(depression) loss of tissue of skin surface. Thinning of epidermis; secondary. e.g. Striae
ulcer
deep depression into dermis, crater-like, irregular. May bleed, leaves scar. secondary. e.g. pressure sore, chancre
secondary skin lesions
result of external forces: scratching, picking, healing of primary lesions
lichenification
dry, leathery thickening of skin as a result of repeated rubbing or scratching area; secondary lesion; chronic atopic dermatitis, neurodermatitis
fissures
erosions, linear cracks w/ abrupt edges, extends into dermis; secondary lesion
scar
Healed wound, replaced by collagen. secondary.
crust
dried exudate of serum, sebum, purulent material on skin surface; secondary. e.g. Impetigo, scab after abrasion, weeping eczema
Confluent
Lesions run together [hives]
Discrete
Distict, individual lesions that remain separate
Gyrate
Twisted, coil spiral, snakelike
Grouped
Cluster of lesions (e.g. Vesicles of contact dermatitis)
Target
Iris, resembles iris of eye, concentric rings of color in the lesions (e.g. Erythema multiforme)
Mongolian spot
Hyperpigmentation in Black, Asian, American Indian, and Hispanic newborns. careful not to interpret this as child abuse.
Vitiligo
Patchy absences of melanin pigment
ABCDE
Asymmetry, Border irregularity, Color variation, Diameter >6cm, Elevation or Enlargement.
Cherry (Senile) angiomas
(1-5mm) smooth, lightly raised, bright red dots.
Linear pigmentation
Brown-black pigmented areas, or linear bands, or streaks along edge of nail. Normal in dark skinned people, abnormal in light skinned people.
Leukonychia striata
Normal white hairline linear markings from trauma or picking at cuticle.
3 normal erythematous neonatal states
Beefy red flush from vasomotor instability, harlequin color change, erythema toxicum (pic)
Acrocyanosis
Bluish color around lips, fingertips, feet, and toenails. Normal = < few hours. Persistent = cyanotic congenital heart disease.
Cutis marmorata
Transient mottling in trunk and extremities. Persistent/pronounced mottling occurs Down syndrome or prematurity.
Milia
Tiny whit papules on neonate face. Sebum occluded follicle openings. Will resolve spontaneously. Advise parents not to squeeze.
Storkbite
Flat, irregular, red/pink patch on neonate face or neck. Fades naturally.
Lanugo
Neonate fine downy hair
Blackheads
Acne, open comedomes, stems from overactive sebaceous glands usually in adolescents.
Whiteheads
Acne, closed comedomes. Oily buildup from overactive sebaceous glands.
Senile lentigines
Hyperpigmentation, "liver spots", small flat brown macules. Aging adults. Excess sun exposure. No treatment req.
Keratose
Raised, thick, pigmented, look crusty, scaly, warty. |Seborrheic keratosis(pic)
Actinic (senile/solar) keratosis
Red-tan scaly plaques, progress to raised and rough. Premalignant to squamous cell carcinoma.
Acrochordons
"skin tags" polyp like overgrowths of skin. Benign.
Sebaceous hyperplasia
Raised, yellow pebbly looking papules. Common in men.
Tenting
When skin does not readily retract upon turgor test.
Polycyclic
Annular lesions grow together
Erosion
Superficial scooped out shallow depression. Epidermis lost. Most, no bleeding. Heals w/out scarring.
Excoriation
Self/inflicted abrasion. Superficial. Scratches.
Keloid
Hypertrophic scar
Decubitus ulcer (pressure ulcer)
Appear over bony prominences, from impeded blood delivery. Ischemia and cell death. Measured in 4 stages.
Stage 1 decubitus ulcer
Reddened, intact skin of decubitus ulcer stages.
Stage 2 decubitus ulcer
Partial- thickness skin erosion w/ loss of epidermis or also dermis in decubitus ulcer.
Stage 3 decubitus ulcer
Full-thickness pressure ulcer. Resembling crater. Extends into subcutaneous tissue. Can not see muscle, bone, tendon.
Stage 4 decubitus ulcer
Full-thickness pressure ulcer. Involves all skin layers, an supporting tissue. Exposed muscle, tendon, or bone. May show slough or eschar(dark necrotic tissue.