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Chapter 16: The Role of Crime Scene Analysis and Reconstruction
Terms in this set (69)
every action taken by the technician at the scene is done with the specfici purpose of what?
1. crime lab
2. application of crime scene analysis using all of the data that may be available to the investigation
what are the two distinct venues that analysis is accomplished through?
does possession of data imply understanding?
time and surroundings
interpretive value of evidence is a function of ___ and ___
make sense of all of the information that is developed
what is the investigative purpose?
made the point testimonial evidence is neither objective nor the strongest evidence
Hans Gross in 1989 in his book System Der Kriminalistik
spoke about testimonial evidence having problems unlike physical evidence being objective
John Adams, Criminal investigation (translated Gross text)
has the power to establish facts regarding an incident that are irrefutable by anyone
crime scene analysis/reconstruction
evaluating the objective evidence for context and interrelationship ; the use of scientific methods, physical evidence, deductive and inductive reasoning and their interrelationships to gain explict knowledge of the series of events that surround the commission of a crime
seek context from the physical evidence
CSI accomplishes crime scene analysis in an effort to seek what?
sought by correlating all of the evidence items to one another in an attempt to objectively describe the nature and order of the actions that entail the incident being investigated
using established methods of crime scene analysis
how can they investigator keep subjectivity at bay and produce an objective picture of the incident?
methodology used for crime scene reconstruction; an indepth crime scene reconstruction that employs scientific method to evaluate the physical evidence known to the analyst; concentrates on objective evidence
will objective crime scene analysis answer each and every question?
necessity of reconstructing the crime through a meticulous examination and collection of facts
1900 Hans Gross spoke about what?
wrote a manual entitled Scientific Murder Investigation; outlined a very distinct series of questions that should be answered in the investigate process; said investigator must "develop other facts, correlating and interlocking to make a whole from apparently disassociated seperate units"; warned against personal subjective theories
in 1933 what did Luke May do?
Wizard of Berkeley; one of the first investigative authors to set out a specific crime scene analysis methodology; compared to a mosaic; stated must first analzye the method of the crime before on could properly understand its purpose; methodology included defining precisely what happened, where it happened and when; credited with articulating a theory for crime scene analysis - nothing just happens
what did Edward Oscar Heinrich do?
crime scene analysis was a specific scientific provess; text- Clues and Crime, the object of the crime scene evaluation was to decide specifically how the crime was committed and in what order the events occured; felt that the scientific method was the underlying foundation of analsysi
H. Rhodes did/thought what in 1933
one of the first authors to refer to his work as crime scene reconstruction; wrote Crime investigation; crime scene was the foundation of the criminal investigation
What did dr. Paul Kirk do in 1953?
Fundamentals of criminal investigation; placed significant emphasis on the objective value of physical evidence and its scientific evaluation; spelled out a specific methodology for crime scene analysis
what did Charles O'hara do between 1956-1978
1. painstaking, comprehensive collection of data
2. arrangement and correlation of that data
3. Definition of issues and investigative question
4. development of a hypothesis along the lines of the aviable data and subsequent resolution of any hypotheses
5. Testing of the hypothesis and elimination, when possible, of contradicting hypotheses
6. Testing of the final hypothesis before acceptance
what six things are involved in O'Hara's process
made a specific association of the reconstruction process to the scientific method in his text Criminal Investigation: A method of reconstruciting the past; physical evidence was primary source of data
James W. Osterburg
Evidence and crime scene reconstruction; their methodology emphasized the importance of contextual info; time and surroundings were a significant source of objective data; logic pathways; storyboard approach
what did Chisum and Rynearson believe
Crime Scene Investigation; Henry Lee's Crime Scene Handbook; use of scientific method as the specfici means utilized in reconstruction; 5 steps: data collection, conjecture, hypothesis fromation, hypothesis testing, and theory formulation; primary data of any reconstruction was based on the evaluation of physical evidence
what did Dr. Henry Lee do/believe?
defined the reconstructive provess involving 4 phases: infor, observation, interpretation and conclusions
How did Peter Lamb define reconstructive process?
Bloodstain Pattern Analysis: with an introduction to Crime scene reconstruction; a concise and specifici methodology incorporating and drawing upon the previous efforts of many individuals
what did Ross Gardner and Tom Bevele do in 1997?
any incident is made up of associated actions; nothing just happens
what is the theory of crime scene analysis and reconstruction?
1. causal connection
what are the five major principles of CSR?
recognizing causal connections, causes and corresponding effects
Everything a CSR analyst does is about what?
2. causal chains
what are the two forms of causal connections that are of concern to the analyst?
direct causal and effect
I strike the head and produce a wound, I pull the trigger and the gun goes off
long and extended; they came, they entered, they killed, they left; all woven together in a complex fashion; provide simple relationships; help bring overall order to the various actions identified by the analysis
bring detail and order to any analysis
recognition of direct cause and effect as well as causal chains ultimately help to do what?
layers; from geology and archeology; layers exist throughout all crime scenes; the order of deposition of all of these items tells us something about what was happening in the scene and the order that it happened
things do not end abruptly; an association is made beetween the disassociated strata or artifacts; major indicator to the analyst
no action or event just happens; every action has something that naturally preceds or follows it
preceds, follows or simultaneous to another action
sequence is evaluated using 3 simple logical relationships
every contact leaves its trace; through associations of evidence we establish ____ between various items of evidence
defining any and all relationships
the concepts of chronology, superposition and continuit are all aimed at what?
the basis of all crime scene reconstruction is what?
1. defining the problem or question to be resolved
2. developing hypothesis
3. collecting, classifying and organizing data
4. establishing predictions
5. testing the predicitons of the hypothesis
6. defining a conclusion
what are the six basic steps of the scientific method?
helps us find answers to complex questions by providing form and direction to the search
what does the scientific method do?
a full-scale event analysis
formal effort that considers all known data from the crime scene and involves the examination of all of the physical evidence in an attempt to establish specific actions of the incident and the order in which the actions occurred
knowning what the problem is
what is one of the most important aspects of using the scientific method?
educated guess as to the answer to the question
recognizing these pre- and post-actions
what is a critical skill for CSR analyst?
is the scientific method more likely to eliminate possibilities or identify one answer?
knowing what the data prove or disprove
what is an important part of crime scene reconstruction?
overall situation being investigated (in event analysis)
events in an incident; gross aspects of the incident
event-segments within an event; snapshots of specific moments int time; aka actions
what are the basic building block of any crimes scene analysis
1. collect data, establish likely events
2. establish actions/event segments from the data available
3. define associated actions
4. order and sequence the associated actions
5. audit the information
6. determine and final-order the events
7. final flowchart the overall incident based on the event and event-segment sequence
what are the seven steps of event analysis
evaluation of forensic reports, photographs, sketches, and examination of physical evidence
how are actions/event segments identified?
presence of specific evidence by the interrelationships of that evidence, or by scientific analysis of that evidence
1. what is it?
2. what function did it serve?
3. What interrelationships exist between the item and other items
4. what does it tell us about time and sequence
what four questions should be answered with regard to every object found in the scene?
the analyst looks for ____ between the various actions and events
puts order to the actions
what does chronology do for actions?
absolute and relative chronology
what two ways are the chronology of actions defined
related to timing aspects; when did the action occur?
sequencing of actions in relation to one another; speaks only to what precedes or what follows a given segment, with no association to time
terminus ante quem
actions that must have preceded annother action
terminus post quem
actions that must have followed another action
terminus peri quem
process of looking beyond the obvious to try and validate or refute previous conclusions; actively try to prove yourself wrong
the info dervived from the event-segment analysis
what will be the basis for reordering or revisting the events
graphically representing the order of the actions
defined outline of what can objectively be concluded as having ocurred during the incident
what is the end product of event analysis?
what is included on flowchart?
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