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History final


a loose union of independent states; name of government used by the southern states that seceded during the Civil War

Battle of Bull Run

First major clash of Union and Confederate armies. It showed both armies that the war would not be quick.

Emancipation Proclamation

Issued by abraham lincoln on september 22, 1862 it declared that all slaves in the confederate states would be free

Battle of Gettysburg

Turning point of the War that made it clear the North would win. 50,000 people died, and the South lost its chance to invade the North.


Lee surrenders here, but Grant offers the Confederacy good surrender terms to try to reunify the country. Terms of surrender- keep horse, give up guns, promise to never attack/betray country again, cant own slaves, and return guns.

Thirteenth Amendment

abolished slavery

Fourteenth Amendment

made "all persons born or naturalized in the United States" citizens of the country

Fifteenth Amendment

a constitutional amendment that gave African American men the right to vote

Reconstruction Act of 1867

Republicans split the confederacy into five military districts, States had to let African-Americans vote. 5 military districts, forced southern states to rewrite their constitution,

Plessy v. Ferguson

a 1896 Supreme Court decision which legalized state ordered segregation so long as the facilities for blacks and whites were equal. end of reconstruction


a person who wants to improve society


moving forward


writer or journalist of the early 1900s who uncovered shameful conditions in business and other areas of American life. Helped make important bills, meat inspection act.


The right to vote


Having little to do with the political affairs of other nations


policy of extending a nation's boundaries

Sphere of Influence

area in which a foreign nation had special trading privileges and made laws for its own citizens

Open Door Policy

American approach to China around 1900, favoring open trade relations between China and other nations

Boxer Rebllion

a seige of a foreign settlement in Beijing by Chinese nationalists

Yellow Journalism

sensational, biased and often false journalism

Spanish-American War

In 1898, a conflict between the United States and Spain, in which the U.S. supported the Cubans' fight for independence

Battle of San Juan Hill

High point for the rough riders in the Spanish-American War. Led by Teddy Roosevelt

Platt Amendment

A 1901 law that limited Cuba's power to conduct its own foreign policy


the extension of a nation's power over other lands by military political or economic means

Abraham Lincoln

U.S. statesmen, 16th president. Led Union to victory in Civil War. Assassinated (john Wilkes booth). Sometimes called "Honest Abe". Efforts during Civil war. Emancipation Proclamation. Gettysburg Address.

Robert E. Lee

Commander of the Confederate Army

Ulysses Grant

Commander of Union Army during the Civil War, 18th US President

Thaddeus Stevens

A radical Republican who believed in harsh punishments for the South. Leader of the radical Republicans in Congress. Opposed President Johnson.

President Johnson

17th president, democrat, against reconstruction, vetoed bill, was unveteod, tried for impeachment, one short vote of bieng impeached, Lincolns VP.

Homer Plessy

man who challenged the Louisiana law requiring blacks to ride in a separate car on trains

Robert La Follette

progressive who reformed the system so that the people themselves could vote on candidates would be. Made sure people were given jobs based on merit system

Theodore Roosevelt

26th President of the United States, hero of the Spanish-American War; Panama Canal was built during his administration; said 'Speak softly but carry a big stick' (1858-1919)

Gettysburg address

Speech made by President Lincoln in 1863 after the Battle of Gettysburg. Abraham Lincoln captured the spirit of liberty and morality ideally held by citizens of a democracy. That ideal was threatened by the Civil War.

13th amendment

This amendment freed all slaves without compensation to the slaveowners. It legally forbade slavery in the United States. January first.

14th amendment

Declares that all persons born in the U.S. are citizens and are guaranteed equal protection of the laws

15th amendment

This amendment granted black men the right to vote.

Howard Taft

Broke up more trusts than TR, safety rules for miners, graduated income tax, dealed with child labor issues, raised tariffs to help industry and business

Woodrow Wilson

President of the United States (1913-1921) and the leading figure at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919. He was unable to persuade the U.S. Congress to ratify the Treaty of Versailles or join the League of Nations.

Alice Paul

United States feminist (1885-1977), head of the National Woman's party that campaigned for an equal rights amendment to the Constitution. She opposed legislation protecting women workers because such laws implied women's inferiority. Most condemned her way of thinking.

Matthew Perry

took naval expedition to japan to negotiate a trade treaty

William Seward

US senator who negotiated purchase of Alaska

Captain Alfred Mahan

The Influence of Sea Power Upon History 1660-1783 (started naval race among nations)

Queen Liliuokalani

the Hawaiian queen who was forced out of power by a revolution started by American business interests

Emilio Aguinaldo

A Fillipino helped the U.S. fight Spain during the war; however, when the U.S. would not give the Philippines their independence, he fought against the U.S.

How did African Americans contribute to the Union war effort?

They fought in major battles by 1863

Why did Lincoln issue the Emancipation Proclamation? How did it change the war?

Issued by abraham lincoln on september 22, 1862 it declared that all slaves in the confederate states would be free. It changed the war in the south for the escaping slaves.

What ideals did Lincoln express in the Gettysburg Address?

Abraham Lincoln captured the spirit of liberty and morality ideally held by citizens of a democracy. That ideal was threatened by the Civil War.

How did the USA acquire hawaii

US planters begin to dominate Hawaiian government
King dies/quenn is anti planters
US send in marines to scare her out of her position
Queen steps down, USA annexas Hawaii

civil service commission

government agency created by the Pendleton Act of 1883 to fill federal jobs on the basis of merite

Elkins act

1903 law that forced railroads charge the same prices to all their customers

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