The related rational choice and social exchange theories are based on economic considerations (choice D is not an expected criticism and is the correct answer). It is important to know that these theories are based on cost-benefit analyses. These theories contend that behavior is goal-orientation in that people are interested in the behaviors and interactions that offer the greatest rewards for the lowest costs. Though these theories are used in much research, there are some serious criticisms. First, there is no clear method for testing the fundamental assumptions (choice A is an expected criticism and can be eliminated). The issue with these theories is that the concepts - costs and benefits - are ambiguous and often personal. Next, the emphasis on cost-effectiveness fails to explain patterns of altruism (choice B is an expected criticism and can be eliminated). The example of altruistic behaviors is inconsistent with the argument that behavior is based on calculations of personal benefits. Last, the theories are individualistic with their focus on personal economic considerations (choice C is an expected criticism and can be eliminated). Individualist theories often disregard the existence of larger social structures. For example, as mentioned above, these theories cannot explain altruistic behavior because behaviors are reduced to the individual. However, altruistic and philanthropic behaviors, such as donations and volunteerism, might be explained through considering the effects of larger social institutions, such as religion, that often exalt these behaviors. Schizotypal personality disorder is characterized by acute discomfort in interpersonal relationships, to the point that people with this disorder rarely have friends outside of immediate family members, and odd eccentric behavior. People with this disorder also frequently have notable cognitive or perceptual disturbances. People diagnosed with schizoid personality disorder are detached from social relationships, though they do not appear to mind their isolation, and exhibit only a limited amount of emotions (choice A is correct). The disorder characterized by social inhibition and feelings of inadequacy is avoidant personality disorder and those who experience distortions of the self are more likely to be experiencing borderline personality disorder, though the phrase "distortions of the self" could be used to refer to a personality disorder in general (choice B is wrong). Those diagnosed with narcissistic personality disorder, not schizotypal, would be self-centered and would lack empathy (choice C is wrong). Choice D does provide an accurate description of schizotypal personality disorder, but the schizoid personality disorder is not characterized by unstable personal relationships, self-image, and a tendency toward impulsive behavior; that is a description of borderline personality disorder (choice D is wrong). Night terrors, which occur during stage 3 sleep and usually involve a person bolting upright from sleep with their eyes open and a look of panic (when this occurs the person is inconsolable, but will not remember the incident in the morning), are considered a parasomnia (abnormal behavior that occurs during sleep), not a dyssomnia (choice B is the correct answer choice). Dyssomnias are defined as abnormalities in the amount, quality, or timing of sleep, and include insomnia (an inability to fall or stay asleep; choice A can be eliminated), narcolepsy (periodic, overwhelming sleepiness during wakefulness; choice C can be eliminated), and sleep apnea (intermittent periods of respiration cessation during sleep which results in awakening; choice D can be eliminated).