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The related rational choice and social exchange theories are based on economic considerations (choice D is not an expected criticism and is the correct answer). It is important to know that these theories are based on cost-benefit analyses. These theories contend that behavior is goal-orientation in that people are interested in the behaviors and interactions that offer the greatest rewards for the lowest costs. Though these theories are used in much research, there are some serious criticisms. First, there is no clear method for testing the fundamental assumptions (choice A is an expected criticism and can be eliminated). The issue with these theories is that the concepts - costs and benefits - are ambiguous and often personal. Next, the emphasis on cost-effectiveness fails to explain patterns of altruism (choice B is an expected criticism and can be eliminated). The example of altruistic behaviors is inconsistent with the argument that behavior is based on calculations of personal benefits. Last, the theories are individualistic with their focus on personal economic considerations (choice C is an expected criticism and can be eliminated). Individualist theories often disregard the existence of larger social structures. For example, as mentioned above, these theories cannot explain altruistic behavior because behaviors are reduced to the individual. However, altruistic and philanthropic behaviors, such as donations and volunteerism, might be explained through considering the effects of larger social institutions, such as religion, that often exalt these behaviors.