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Chapter 9: Meiosis & Sexual reproduction Jazmine
Terms in this set (53)
Individual inherits all its chromosomes from a single parent
What is asexual reproduction?
Development of an adult from an unfertilized egg
What is pathogenesis?
Produces genetic variability
What is sexual reproduction?
How many chromosomes are in somatic cells of humans?
What carries genes that control the same inherited characters?
An arrangement of all 46 chromosomes placed in their pairs
What is a karyotype?
What type of reproduction allows for new combinations of genes?
Being diploid can cause a population to house lethal combinations of alleles and pass them on. Haploid creatures will have these weeded out immediately
What is the advantage of being haploid over diploid?
Diploid becomes haploid through meiosis, then fertilization allows them to become diploid again
If both parents are diploid, how can a new individual be made during sex?
What combines the haploid cells created through meiosis to make a new diploid individual
What is fertilization?
A diploid zygote with new genetic combinations
What forms as a result of fertilization?
What is the name of the cells produced by meiosis?
What is the ploidy of a gamete?
A diploid zygote
What forms as a result of gametes fusing?
How do zygote cell divide?
Do gametes divide?
When does meiosis occur in animals?
Diploid life cycle
Fungi, algae, some protists
Which types of organisms go through a haploid life cycle?
Yes, the zygote is the only diploid phase
In the haploid cycle is there a diploid phase? If so, when is it?
Immediately after fertilization
When does meiosis occur in haploid life cycle organisms?
What does gamete fusion stimulate in haploid creatures?
Haploid cells (spore)
What is produced from meiosis in a haploid organism?
What does mitosis produce in multicellular haploid organisms?
How are gametes produced in haploid organisms?
Haploid life cycle
Which organisms have alternating generations of diploid/haploid cycles?
What are the names for the alternating haploid and diploid stages of plants?
What does meiosis in the sporophyte produce?
What develops as a result of mitosis in the haploid spores?
Gametes are released
What comes after the gametophyte in a plant life cycle?
What does fusion of the gametes from the gametophyte produce?
What does the zygote become?
Its copies the chromosomes once, but divides twice
How does meiosis reduce the chromosome number?
In the first division of meiosis what is separated?
What does the second division of meiosis separate?
What is the first phase of meiosis?
-Homologous chromosomes pair up
What happens in prophase 1?
The result of homologous chromosomes pairing up
What is a tetrad?
The movement of homologues together
What is a synapsis?
What allows for the formation of new genetic combinations during meiosis?
The site where crossing over occurs on homologous chromosomes
What is a chiasmata?
Tetrads are arranged at the metaphase plate
What happens during metaphase 1?
Homologous chromosomes are separated and pulled towards opposite sides.
What happens during anaphase 1?
They usually occur simultaneously, nuclei may reform, no further replication of chromosomes
What happens in telophase 1 & cytokinesis?
Which part of meiosis is the same as mitosis?
How many daughter cells are produced in meiosis?
Are the daughter cells the same as each other and the original?
Can meiosis start from a diploid cell?
What are the three mechanisms of variation?
Refers to the separation of homologous chromosomes from each other.
What is independent assortment?
Allows for new chromosomes to be generated by the random combinations of alleles.
What is crossing over?
Means that there is a large selection of males and females resulting random combination of gametes.
What is random fertilization?
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