(1) Universalists (e.g., Darwin)
Universalists argue that emotional expressions are innate, and that these expressions developed through evolution because they were biologically adaptive
* emotional expressions are very consistent across Western, Eastern, and pre-literate cultures (e.g., PNG tribespeople).
* New-born babies display distress, disgust, and interest much like adults. Before 6 months, they express happiness, surprise & fear.
* Blind and deaf children encode emotional expressions similarly to other children.
* Some emotional expressions resemble those of other species (e.g. anger).