1 / 150
consists of the brain and spinal cord
Click the card to flip 👆
Terms in this set (150)
these sturctures make up what? cell body, dendrites, and axons)"Neurons (nerve cells)"te cell body is also called the what?somathe axon is also referred to as what?nerve fiberin the spinal cord what is surronded by a grey matter at the core?the central cavitythe outer portion of the spinal cord that surrounds the gray matter corewhite materwhat gives white mater its color?myelinated fiber tractsthe spinal cord starts at what?the foramen magnumthe spinal cord ends at what vertebrae?L1provides two-way communication to and from the brainSpinal cordwhat protects the spinal cord?bone, meninges, and CSFwhat is the outer most meningeal layer?dura materwhat in the middle miningeal layer?arachnoid materwhat is the innermost meningeal layer?pia materwhat covers and protects the CNSMeningeswhat protects blood vessels and encloses venous sinusesMeningesT or F the meninges contain CSF?TRUE"what forms partitions within the skull"Meningesspace between vertebrae and dura mater filled with fat and veinsepidural spacewhat are the four major areas of the brain?diencephalon, cerebrum, brainstem, and cerebellumcontrols automatic behaviors necessary for survivalbrainstemprovides the pathway for tracts between higher and lower brain centersbrainstemassociated with 10 of the 12 pairs of cranial nervesbrainsteminferior swelling that is continuous with spinal cordMedulla Oblongatacontrols heart & breathing rateMedulla Oblongataregulates blood pressure (vasoconstriction)Medulla Oblongatareflexes: swallowing, sneezing, coughing, vomiting, hiccups, etc.Medulla Oblongataserves as a crossover point for descending tracts from cerebral hemispheresMedulla Oblongatadecussatecross overT or F the right half of the brain controls the right half of the bodyFALSE"egg shaped structure superior to medulla oblongata"two-way track or bridge between cerebrum & cerebellumponsassists medulla with functions, such as rhythm of normal breathingponsnuclei control chewing & salivationponsposterior part of brainstemmidbrain"consists of:-corpora quadrigemina (colliculi)-nuclei (substantia nigra, red nuclei)-cerebral peduncles"midbrainprimarily serves to edit fight-or-flight informationmidbrainprocesses startle reflexes associated with soundsmidbrianedits visual coordinationmidbrainoccurs subconsciouslyCerebellumprovides precise timing and appropriate patterns of skeletal muscle contractionCerebellumdistinctive treelike pattern of cerebellar white matterarbor vitaewhere is the arbor vitae found/Cerebellumcentral core of forebraindiencephalon"onsists of:thalamus, subthalamus, epithalamus, hypothalamus"diencephalonmediates sensation, motor activities, learning & memorythalamusedits & funnels information from the body to cortex ("sensory relay center")thalamussmall area inferior to thalamussubtalamusT. or F subthalamic nuclei are involved in control of motor functionsTRUEsmall area superior & posterior to thalamusinvolved in emotional and visceral responses to odorshabenular nucleipinecone shaped gland that is involved in controlling onset of puberty & secretes melatonin (regulates sleep-wake cycles)pineal bodythe pineal body and habenular nuclei make up what?epithalamusis mostly a collection of nuclei that control homeostasis & is often called the 'master gland'hypothalamuscontrols blood pressure, body temperature, force of heartbeat, viscera, sleep cycleshypothalamusserves as relay station for olfactory information, involved in perception of fear, pleasure & ragehypothalamusstalk connecting hypothalamus to pituitary glandinfundibulum"collections of nuclei forming externally visible swellings that serve in emotional responses to odors, olfactory reflexes & memory"mammillary bodiesTwo hemispheres form superior part of braincerebrumridgesgyrishallow groovessulcideep groovesfissuresseparates anterior/posterior halves of cortexcentral sulcusdelineates temporal lobelateral fissuresuperficial, convoluted gray matter layercerebral cortexcentral white matter tractscerebral medullagroups of nerve cell bodiesbasal nucleicentral areas of white matter that serve to connect areas of cortex to each other or to basal nucleicerebral medullamade up of three types of tracts consisting of nerve fibers: association fibers, commissurual fibers, and projection fiberscerebral medulla"connect areas within one hemisphere"association fibersconnect areas between hemispherescommissural fibersconnect cerebrum to other parts of brain and spinal cordprojection fibers"-is the largest of the tracts-visible dense white mass holds the two hemispheres together"corpus callosum"-serve to edit information for motor functions from cortex to brain stem-their role is not completely understood yet-impairment leads to loss of inhibition of certain functions (ex. Huntington's, Parkinson's)"basal nuclei"Enables:-sensation-communication-memory-understanding-voluntary movements (contralateral control of body)"cerebral cortexwhat are the three functional areas of the cerebral cortex?sensory, association, and motorT or F the seneory area of the cerebral cortext invovle unconscious awareness of sensesFALSET or F the association areas of the cerebral cortext integrate informationTRUET or F the motor areas of the cerebral cortex involve control of involunatry movementsFALSEhow many lobes is each cerebral hemisphere divided into?5which lobe controls voluntary motor functionfrontalwhich lobe is an association area for sense of smellfrontalwhich lobe controls motivation, aggression, & moodfrontal"which lobe serves as primary area for 'higher thinking':-solving complex problems-multitasking-personality"frontalwhich lobe has the somatosensory cortex?parietal lobepain, pressure & temperature sensationssomatosensory cortexwhich lobe controls equilibrium?parietal lobewhat lobe plays a part in taste but isnt the primary center for taste?parietal lobewhich lobe controls vision?occipital lobewhich lobe controls hearing?temorpal lobe"which lobe is the center for:-abstract thought-judgement-memory formation & recall"temorpal lobewhich lobe is responsible for smell (some: emotional/memory)temorpal lobenot truly a lobeinsulasmall area of cortex located deep within the lateral fissureinsulaserves as primary center for tasteinsulaneurons that carry sensory information from the outer body towards the CNSafferent neuronsinformation from visceral receptors enter the central nervous system by two routes : into the spinal cord via the dorsal roots and into the brainstem via the cranial nerves (CN VIII, IX, and X). these 3 CN transmit taste information and the glossopharyngeal ( IX) and vegas (X) transmit information from viscera.afferent pathwaysneurons that relay command from the CNS to smooth and striated muscles and glands ( motor )efferent neuronsautonomic efferent neurons are classified under two different classes which are..sympathetic and parasympatheticlargest class of neurons, act throughout the nervous system, processing info locally or conveying info short distanceinterneuronsoptimized blood flow to the organs, regulates body temp, and metabolic rate and regulates the activity of viscerasympathetic divisiondecreases cardiac activity; facilitates digestion, increases secretions in the lungs, eyes, and mouth; controls convexity of the lens in the eye; constricts the pupil' controls voiding of the bladder and controls the erection and lubrication of sexual organs.parasympathetic divisionThe brain weighs only ______ of the average adult's body weight2%It receives ____ of a person's total cardiac output.15%The brain uses ____ of total body glucose.25%It also consumes almost _____ of the available oxygen within the entire body.20%The brain receives its blood supply from ______ and ______ arteries.carotid and veterbral basilar arteriesT or F The carotid arterial system has left and right branches and divides into internal and external carotid arteries.TRUEthe internal carotid artery braches into what?the anterior cerebral arteries and the middle cerebral arteriessupplies the medial, frontal, and parietal lobsanterior arterieswhat connects the anterior cerebral arteriors?anterior communicating arterysupplys the lateral surface of the cerebral hemisphersmiddle cerebral arterieswhat connects the internal carotid arteries to the posterior cerebral arteriies?posterior communicating arteriesthe vertebral arteries turn into what?the posterior inferior cerebral artery (PICA)