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Marine and Desert Bio: Unit 9 Test
Terms in this set (33)
What does increased buoyancy do for epipelagic organisms?
reduces the tendency to sink in the first place
What is one common buoyancy adaptation for epipelagic organisms? Why does this work?
to store lipids, such as oils or fats. / lipids are less dense than water and floats
How do some plankton increase buoyancy?
by containing oil droplets while others have pockets of gas including air bubbles for plankton
How do adult epipelagic fishes increase buoyancy?
by storing lipids.
How do whales, seals, and other marine mammals increase buoyancy?
by having a thick layer of fatty blubber under their skin.
How do epipelagic organisms without oil or fat stores increase buoyancy?
by having pockets of gas including air bubbles in plankton and swim bladders in many fishes.
What do most epipelagic organisms have to conceal themselves from predators and prey? What is countershading?
camouflage. / when the back of organisms is dark and the belly is white or silver.
Why are highly developed sense organs so necessary for epipelagic organisms? What is possibly the most important of these senses?
because it helps them detect their prey and enemies. / vision.
Covers the surface to the depth where there is no longer enough light to support photosynthesis and varies, depending on water clarity and amount of sunlight.
The Photic Zone.
Which organisms are often the only primary producers in the epipelagic, perform more than 95% of photosynthesis in the ocean, and produce half of the world's oxygen?
What is the first step in the flow of energy through the epipelagic food web (after phytoplankton). Why are these organisms relied on by larger epipelagic animals?
zooplankton. / they cannot feed directly on phytoplankton; they are a vital link between the primary producers (phytoplankton) and the rest of the community.
What holds the most water on Earth and helps to regulate our climate and atmosphere?
The Pelagic Zone
Where are krill found? What do they feed on? What feeds on them?
in huge swarms, generally in cold waters. / phytoplankton, other zooplankton, and detritus (dead organic matter). / many fishes, seabirds, and even large whales.
Which type of worm has a major role in epipelagic food webs? What do they mostly feed on?
Arrow worms. / copepods.
What are the most abundant nekton?
fishes, marine mammals, and squids.
What do most nekton eat?
are carnivorous, and most species eat other nekton. Fishes, squids, and large crustaceans are the main foods.
What are planktivorous animals? Which organisms are planktivorous?
those that eat plankton. / sardines, anchovies, the whale shark, the basking shark, and baleen whales.
Which organisms are the top predators of the epipelagic? What do they eat?
sperm whales, killer whales, great white sharks, and mako sharks. / giant squid, porpoises, seals, and sharks. Killer whales even hunt in groups to kill baleen whales
What are the two main needs that the adaptations of epipelagic organisms help with?
the need to stay in the epipelagic and the need to eat and avoid being eaten.
How much of the zooplankton community is made of copepods? What do they eat?
70%. / at least some phytoplankton, while many eat other zooplankton.
Which is denser, cells/tissues/shells/skeletons, or water? What will happen to cells/tissues/shells/skeletons when placed in water?
Cells/tissues/shells/skeletons are denser then water. / they will sink unless they have an adaptation to prevent it.
Why do phytoplankton have to stay near the surface? Why do zooplankton and nekton have to stay near the surface?
so they receive enough sunlight to carry out photosynthesis. / that is where their food is found.
What does increased water resistance keep organisms from doing? How do plankton increase surface area? How do jellyfish slow down their sinking?
keeps organisms from sinking fast depending on the amount of water resistance. / through their body shapes, they are flat. / by having parachute like bodies.
Why don't nekton have a body structure that increases water resistance?
swimming burns a lot of energy, so nekton usually have adaptations to reduce water resistance.
What is vertical migration? Why is this important for organisms like zooplankton?
when some zooplankton spend only a part of their time near the surface and retreat to safer territory when not feeding. / during the day they live at least 200 m below the surface, where it is darker, keeping them safe from predators that use vision.
What are floaters and how do they stay near the surface of the sea? Give an example.
a group of organisms that live right at the very surface of the sea. / they commonly have some sort of gas-filled structure to provide buoyancy. / by-the-wind sailor and the Portuguese man-of-war.
What are used by many epipelagic fishes to feel vibrations in the water to detect prey and predators?
Lateral line systems.
How do dolphins detect prey at a distance?
use echolocation (sonar).
What type of body structure do epipelagic fishes have that make them the most powerful swimmers in the ocean? Why is it so necessary they can swim fast?
have smooth, streamlined bodies that taper to a large tail fin. / it is the only way for many organisms to escape predators as there is no place to hide in the open ocean.
What types of organisms are part of the meroplankton community? What do they feed on? Do they always feed on the same thing throughout their life? Explain your answer.
the eggs and larvae of many invertebrates and nearly all marine fishes. / mostly on phytoplankton while larger ones feed on zooplankton. / They always feed on the same thing throughout their life because those with a series of life stages may feed on phytoplankton and then switch to zooplankton as they become larger, always switching between zooplankton and phytoplankton, never straying from that regimen.
The uppermost part of the pelagic zone that covers parts of the ocean from the surface down to 200 m.
The Epipelagic zone.
Using the organisms you learned about in this unit, explain the flow of energy from the sun all the way to the top predators in the ocean. This would include which organisms eat the other organisms and which organisms are eaten by the others. You will also need to be able to construct a food web using the organisms from this unit.
phytoplankton, zooplankton (copepods and krill) and meroplankton, arrow worms, many fishes, seabirds, large whales, and planktivorous nekton (sardines and anchovies), sperm whales, killer whales, great white sharks, and mako sharks.
Be able to explain the different adaptations the epipelagic organisms have to stay afloat and which organisms these adaptations are found in.
One adaptation is increased water resistance and that is how fast an organism sinks depending on how much water resistance it has. This adaptation is found in most plankton and jellyfish because of their flat, parachute-like bodies. Another adaptation is increased buoyancy and this reduces the tendency to sink in the first place by storing lipids, such as oils or fats. This adaptation is found in many plankton, sharks, tunas, whales, and other marine mammals. One more adaptation is pockets of gas inclusive of air bubbles and swim bladders. This adaptation is found in many fishes and plankton.
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