30 terms

Civil Rights

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13th amendment
This amendment ended slavery.
I Have a Dream
This speech by Martin Luther King Jr. during the March on Washington focused on civil rights.
Desegregation
Harry Truman supported this policy to end racial separation in the armed forces with Executive Order 9981.
Black Panthers
This group of activists worked against problems in the ghetto and for self-sufficiency of African-Americans.
Affirmative Action
This was Kennedy's plan increase minority representation in colleges, professions and businesses.
Voting Rights Act
This act in 1965 eliminated obstacles for African Americans and increased the federal governments power over voting.
Betty Friedan
She is the author of the Feninine Mystique arguing against the traditional role of women. She also cofounded NOW.
Martin Luther King Jr.
He promoted civil disobedience and led the Montgomery Bus Boycott.
14th amendment
This amendment guaranteed for citizen rights for everyone.
Lobbying
This strategy is used to convice Congress to vote a certain way.
George Wallace
He was the Governor of Alabama that worked against the integration of the Univ. of Alabama.
Cesar Chavez
He organized the migrant farm workers union to defend Hispanic migrant workers.
Education
Title IX amended the Civil Rights Act of 1964 to end gender discrimination to these programs.
Orval Faubus
He was the governor of Arkansas who ordered the National Guard to prevent the Little Rock 9 from integrating Central High.
Birmingham Jail
Martin Luther King Jr. wrote a letter from this location expressing why African Americans could no longer wait for equality.
Rosa Parks
She was arrested for refusing to give up her bus seat on a segregated bus. This led to the Montgomery Bus Boycott.
Non violent protest
This strategy was promoted by Martin Luther King Jr., Ghandi, and many others instead of more aggressive tactics.
15th amendment
This amendment guaranteed the right to vote for all men regardless of race.
Thurgood Marshall
He was appointed Chief Counsel for the NAACP and became the first African American Supreme Court Justice.
Beat Generation
The name for writers in 50s that rebelled against the conformity of their era. They preferred to be care-free & often reckless.
19th amendment
This amendment guaranteed the right to vote regardless of gender.
Civil Rights Act
Passed in 1957 to increase African American voting & in 1964 to prohibit discrimination in business engaged in interstate commerce.
American Indian Movement
This part of the Civil Rights Movement focused on the U.S. honoring it's existing treaties with the American Indians as well as a recognition of their culture. Their protests included occupying government monuments on Alcatraz and Wounded Knee.
Chicano Mural Movement
This movement was an expression of Mexican American culture. The murals became an important expression of their identity.
Hector P. Garcia
He moved to Texas as a young man when his family fled the Mexican Revolution. The discrimination he witnessed against Mexican Americans during WWII led him to form the American GI forum to focus on increasing veterans' benefits for Mexican Americans. He was awarded the American Medal of Freedom in 1984 for his community activism.
Heart of Atlanta Motel v US
The Supreme Court ruled that Congress did have the power, under the Commerce clause, to regulate discrimination in public accommodations.
Delores Huerta
She co-founded the United Farm Workers of America along with Cesar Chavez. Her leadership in the national grape boycott resulted in the California grape industry agreeing to collective bargaining rights for workers.
Judicial Interpretation
This term refers to the courts ruling on law or policy where they interpret the policy broadly and in some cases might be seen as making a new policy by its interpretation.
Litigation
To "litigate" means to sue. Litigation was a tactic used in the Civil Rights movement. Many groups used the courts in an attempt to secure rights for minorities.
Title IX
This part of the Elementary and Secondary Act banned gender discrimination in educational settings. It promoted gender equity by requiring the same opportunities for women (most often in the area of sports).