Hartman's CNA Final Review

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Another name for a long-term care facility is:
A. Extended care facility
B. Home health care facility
C. Assisted living facility
D. Adult day services facility
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Terms in this set (734)
Which of the following statements is true of adult day services?
A. This type of care is for people who need to live in the facility where the care is provided.
B.This type of care is for people who need some help and supervision during certain hours.
C. Most people who need adult day services are seriously ill or disabled.
D. Many types of surgery are performed at adult day services centers.
There are four parts of Medicare, what does part D help pay for? A. Nursing Home B. Prescription Medication C. EquipmentB.Prescription/MedicineNursing assistants will help with_____ care, such as bathing and hair care. A. Basic B. Personal C. Oral D. EyeB. PersonalNursing assistants will help with ________ needs A. Daily B. Tolieting C. Health D. BathingB. TolietingNursing assistants will help residents move around___________ A. Safely B.Carefully C. Slowly D. EvenlyA. SafelyNursing assistants will assist with _______ A. Diet B. Meals C. Tolieting D. WalkingB. MealsNursing assistants will help promote self-care and__________ A. Body image B. IndependenceB. IndependenceActivities Director A. Helps residents socialize and stay active B. Creates diets C. Diagnoses and treats illnesses D. Help patient with social and financial issuesA.Helps residents socialize and stay activeLicensed practical nurse is A. Licensed professional who has completed one to two years of education and is able to administer medications and give treatments. B. Diagnoses patients C. Helps patients readjust to being disabled D. Helps patients with their legal issuesA. Licensed professional who has completed one to two years of education and is able to administer medications and give treatments.Medical Social WorkerHelps resident get support services, such as counselingNursing Assistant (NA or CNA)Performs assigned tasks, such as taking vital signs and providing personal careOccupational Therapist (OT)Helps residents learn to adapt to disabilities by training residents to perform ADLs and other activitiesPhysical Therapist (PT or DPT)Administers therapy in the form of heat,cold,massage,ultrasound, electrical stimulation, and exercise to muscles, bones, and jointsPhysician or Doctor(MD or DO)Diagnoses disease or disability and prescribes treatmentRegistered Dietitian (RDT)Creates diets for residents with special needsRegistered Nurse (RN)Licensed professional who has graduated from a two to four year nursing program and coordinates,manages, and provides skilled nursing careResidentPerson whose condition, treatment, and progress are what the care team revolves aroundSpeech-Language Pathologist (SLP)Teaches exercises to help the resident improve or overcome speech problemsWhich of the following statements is true of the chain of command?It describes the line of authority in a facility.Liability is a legal term that means?Someone can be held responsible for harming someone elseWhy should a nursing assistant (NA) not do tasks that are not assigned to him?The NA may put himself or someone else in danger.What is one reason that other members of the care team will show great interest in the work that a nursing assistant does?The NA will be working under the authority of others' licenses.A policy isA course of action to be followed. For example, all health information must remain confidential.Facilities will...Have procedures for reporting information about residentsBeing on time for workProfessionalBeing neatly dressed and groomedProfessionalDoing extra tasks that have not been assignedUnprofessionalKeeping resident information confidentialProfessionalTelling a resident about a date that the NA had over the weekendUnprofessionalExplaining care before providing itProfessionalAccepting a birthday gift from a residentUnprofessionalFollowing policies and proceduresProfessionalAsking questions when the NA is not sure of somethingProfessionalCompassionateBeing caring, concerned, considered, empathetic, and understandingConscientiousBeing guided by a sense of right and wrong and having principlesDependableGetting to work on time and doing assigned tasks skillfullyEmphatheticSharing in the feelings and difficulties of othersHonestBeing truthfulPatientNot rushing residents or being irritated if they take a long time do things;not losing one's temper easilyRespectfulShowing sensitivity and having a sense of what is appropriate when dealing with othersSympatheticIdentifying with the feelings of othersTactfulValuing other people's individuality and treating others politely and kindlyTolerantPutting aside personal opinions and not judging othersUnprejudicedGiving the same quality of care regardless of age, gender, sexual orientation,religion, race, ethnicity, or conditionAbusePurposeful mistreatment that causes physical ,mental or emotional pain or injury to someoneActive NeglectIntentional or unintentional treatment that causes harm to a person's body-includes slapping, bruising, cutting, burning, physically restraining, pushing, shoving, and rough handlingAssaultA threat to harm a person, resulting in the person feeling fearful that he will be harmedBatteryThe intentional touching of a person without his consentDomestic ViolencePhysical, sexual, or emotional abuse by spouses, intimate partners or family membersFalse imprisonmentUnlawful restraint that affects a person's freedom of movementFinancial AbuseThe improper or illegal use of a persons money,possessions, property, or other assetsInvoluntary SeculsionThe separation of a person from others against the person's willMalpracticeWhen a person is injured due to professional misconduct through negligence,carelessness, or lack of skill.NegligenceActions, or the failure to act or provide the proper care for a resident, resulting in unintended injury.Passive neglectThe unintentional failure to provide needed care, resulting in physical, mental, or emotional harm to a personPhysical abuseAny treatment, intentional or not, that causes harm to a person's body.Sexual abuseThe forcing of a person to perform or participate in sexual acts against his or her will.Substance abuseThe use of legal or illegal drugs, cigarettes, or alcohol in a way that harms oneself or others.Verbal abuseThe use of spoken or written words, pictures, or gestures that threaten, embarrass, or insult a personWorkplace ViolenceAbuse of staff by other staff members, residents, or visitors.OBRAOmnibus Budget Reconciliation ActQuality of lifeResidents have the right to the best care available.Services and activities to maintain a high level of wellnessResidents must receive the correct care.The right to participate in their own careResidents have the right to participate in planning their treatment, care, and discharge.The right to make independent choicesResidents can make choices about their doctors,care, and treatments.The right to privacy and confidentiality.Residents have a right to privacy when care is given.The right to dignity, respect, and freedom.Residents must be respected and treated with dignity by caregivers.The right to security of possessions.Residents' personal possessions must be safe at all times.Rights during transfers and dischargesLocation changes must be made safely and with the resident's knowledge and consent.Right to complainResidents have the right to make complaints without fear of punishment.Right to visitsResidents have the right to have visits from doctors, family, friends, clergy members, ombudsmen, legal representatives, or any other person.Rights with social servicesThe facility must provide residents with access to social services.Minimum Data Set(MDS)A detailed form with guidelines for assessing residents. It must be completed within 14 days of admission and again each year.MedicareA federal health insurance program that was established in 1965 for people aged 65 and older. It only pays for what it determines to be medically necessary.MedicaidA medical assistance program for low-income people, as well as for people with disabilities. Eligibility and coverage is determined by income and special circumstancesThe largest organ and system in the body is:The skinSkin prevents_______ to internal organsInjurySkin also prevents the loss of too much______ which is essential to lifeWaterThe skin is also a ______ organ that feels heat, cold, pain, touch, and pressureSenseBlood vessels_________ or widen, when the outside temperature is too highDilateBlood vessels__________ or narrow, when the outside temperature is too coldConstrictNormal or Sign: Thinning SkinNormalNormal or Signs: BruisesSignNormal or Signs: Cut in SkinSignNormal or Sign: WrinklesNormalNormal or Sign: Brown SpotsNormalNormal or Sign :Thinning of fatty tissueNormalNormal or Sign:Flaking skinSignNormal or Sign:Thinning SkinNormalNormal or Sign:Less elastic skinNormalNormal or Sign: Reddened SkinSignNormal or Sign:Swollen SkinSignNormal or Sign: Gray HairNormalNormal or Sign:Orange-peel look or skinSignThe body is shaped bymuscles, bones, ligaments, tendons, and cartilage.The human body has_______ bones206Bones _______ the body's organsProtectTwo _____meet at a joint.BonesMuscles allow ___________movement of body partsRange of motion exercises help______Prevent problems related to immobilityAtrophy occurs when the muscle _________Weakens, decreases in size, and wastes away.Falls can be prevented by ______Keeping paths clear no keeping walkers or canes within easy reachNormal or Sign:Bruising on SkinSignNormal or Sign: Weakening of MusclesNormalNormal or Sign: loss of muscle toneNormalNormal or Sign: Change in ability to do routine movements or ROM exercisesSignNormal or Sign: Loss of bone densityNormalNormal or Sign: Increased brittleness of bonesNormalNormal or Sign: aches & PainsSignNormal or Sign: Loss of heightNormalNormal or Sign:pain during movementSignNormal or Sign:increased swelling of jointsSignNormal or Sign: white, shiny, and worn area over a jointSignNormal or Sign:Slowing or body movementNormalArthritis is a general term referring to _________ of the jointsSwellingWhat happens with an autoimmune illness?The immune system attacks normal tissue in the bodyOsteoarthritis is common inThe elderlyIf an NA sees NWB on a residents car plan, the resident ________Is unable to support any weight on one or both legsWhich side should residents recovering from hip replacements dress first?Affected (weaker side)Fractures are broken bones and are often caused byOsteoarthritisWhat kind of pillow immobilizes and positions the hips and lower extremities after a hip replacement?An abduction pillowWhich of the following statements is true of a knee replacement?A knee replacement can help restore motion to the knee.The nervous systemControls and coordinates body functionsThe two main pars of the nervous system areThe two main parts of the nervous system areCentral nervous system and peripheral nervous systemNormal or Sign: inability to move one side of the bodySignNormal or Sign: depressionSignNormal or Sign:fatigue with movementSignNormal or Sign: shakingSignNormal or Sign:Decreased sense of heat and coldSignNormal or Sign:slurred speechSignNormal or Sign: decreased ability to perform ADLsSignNormal or Sign: slower responses and reflexesNormalNormal or Sign: trouble swallowingSignNormal or Sign: confusionSignNormal or Sign: decrease sensitivity of nerve endings in skinNormalNormal or Sign: violent behaviorSignNormal or Sign: violent behaviorSignNormal or Sign: minor short term memory lossNormalNormal or Sign: changes in vision or hearingSignResidents with paralysis or loss of movementNeed physical therapyLeg exercises helpImprove circulationWhen helping with transfers or ambulation,The NA should stand on the resident's stronger sideThe NA should always use a fair belt for safety whenHelping a resident who has had a stroke to walkGestures are important incommunicating with a resident who has had a strokeResidents who suffer confusion or memory loss due to a stroke may feel more secure ifThe NA keeps a routine of careResidents with a loss of sensationcould easily but themselvesThe NA should an questions that CNA be answered withA yes or no when communicating with a resident who has had a strokeParkinson's disease is a progressive disease that causesA section of the brain to degenerateParkinson's disease causes ashuffling gait and a mask life facial expressionMultiple sclerosis causes the protective ______ for the nerves, spinal cord, and white mater of the brain to break down over timeCoveringFor a person with MA, nerves cannot sendMessagesSymptoms of MS include_____vision, fatigue, tremors, Poe balance, and trouble walkingBlurredThe NA should offer _______ periods a necessary for residents with MS.RestingHe NA should give residents plenty of time to ________because people with MS down have trouble forming their thoughts.RestingThe NA should give residents plenty of time to _______because people with MS often have trouble forming their own thoughtsCommunicate_______can worsen the effects of MS so the NA should remain calm and listen to residents when they want to talkStressThe effects of a spinal cord injuryDepend on the location of the injury and the force of impactThe higher the injury on the spinal cord,The greater loss of function will beParaplegia is aLoss of function of the lower body and legs.Residents with head or spinal cord injuries will needEmotional support as well as physical help.People with spinal cord injuries maynot feel burns because of loss of sensationThe NA should help residents change positions at leastevery two hours to prevent pressure ulcersThe circulatory system is made up ofThe heart, blood, and blood vesselsThe blood carriesFood, oxygen, and other substances cells needed to functionThe circulatory system removesWaste products from cells.Normal or Sign: severe headacheSignNormal or Sign heart pumps less efficientlyNormalNormal or Sign: chest painSignNormal or Sign: swelling of hands or feetSignNormal or Sign: changes in pulse rateSignNormal or Sign: pale or bluish hands or feetSignNormal or Sign: fatigueSignNormal or Sign: shortness of breathSignWhat are three possible causes of hypertension?Kidney disease, tumors of the adrenal glands and pregnancyCoronary artery disease (CAD) lowers _______the supply of blood, oxygen, and nutrients to the heart and can lead to heart attack or strokeThe heart needs _______ oxygen when the body is at restlessThe pain of Angina Pectoris is usually described aspressure or tightness in the left side of the chestA person suffering from angina pectoris maysweat, look pale, and have trouble.If a person with CAD rests,it helps the blood flow return to normalResidents with CAD may needto avoid heavy meals and intenses exerciseWhat are five guidelines for recovering from a myocardial infarctionExercise, Low-fat/cholesterol/sodium diet, Medication, Quit Smoking,Stress ManagementCongestive heart failure can be treated and controlled withMedicationMedications help remove excess_______fluids, which means more trips to the bathroomLimited activity or___________may be prescribed for CHF patientsResidents may need to be _____weighed at the same time every dayExtra pillows may helpresidents who have trouble breathingA common side effect of CHF medication isdizzinessPeripheral vascular disease (PVD) is a condition in which the legs,feet, arms, or hands do not have enoughBlood circulationPVD is caused byfatty deposits in blood vesselsRespiration occurs inthe lungsExpiration is_____breathing outThe respiratory system bringsoxygen into the body and removes carbon dioxideRegular exercise and______deep breathing should be encouragedNormal or Sign: Decreased lung strength and capacityNormalNormal or Sign: discolored sputumSignNormal or Sign: Need to sit after mild exertionSignNormal or Sign: Shallow breathingSignNormal or Sign:Pale or bluish lips, arms, or legsSignNormal or Sign: Weaker voiceNormalNormal or Sign: Coughing or wheezingsignNormal or Sign: nasal congestionsignNormal or Sign: change in respiratory ratesignResidents with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have difficulty withbreathingA common fear of a person who has COPD isnot being able to breatheThe best position for a resident with COPD issitting uprightPart of the NA's role in caring for a resident with COPD includesbeing calm and supportiveChronic bronchitis and emphysema are grouped underChronic obstructive pulmonary disease or COPDTwo vital functions of the urinary system areeliminating waste and maintaining water balanceTwo functions of the gastrointestinal system aredigestion and eliminationUprightkeeping the body in this position during sleep may help when a person has gastroesophageal reflux diseaseHemorrhoidsenlarged veins in the rectum that causes itching and burningFiberTreatment fo constipation often includes increasing the amount of this eatenStomaan artificial opening in the bodyThe frequent elmination of liquid semi-liquid fecesDiarrheaAbbreviation for gastroesophageal reflux diseaseGERDThe endocrine system is made up ofglandshormonesare chemical substances created by the body that control numerous body functionsAs a person ages, the body is less able to handlestressDiabetes is a condition in which the pancreas does not produce enough or properly useinsulinSugars collecting in the blood cause problems withcirculationType 1 Diabetescontinues throughout a person's lifeChanges in the circulatory system from diabetes can causeheart attack and strokeThe most common form of diabetes isType 2 DiabetesPoor circulation and impaired wound healing may result inGangreneWhat condition occurs when a person's blood glucose level is above normal but not high enough for a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes?Pre-diabetesCareful foot care isvitally important for people with diabetesThe reproductive system allows humans tocreate human lifeThe male and female sex glands are calledgonadsThe end of menstrual periods in females is calledmenopauseVaginitis can be caused bybacteria, protozoa, or fungiThe immune system protects the body from disease causingbacteria, viruses, and organismsNonspecific immunityprotects the body from disease in generalSpecific Immunityprotects against a disease that is invading the body at a given timeThe lymphatic system removes excessfluids and waste products from the tissuesLymph is aclear yellow fluid that carries disease-fighting cells called lymphocytesCare for the person who has HIV or AIDS should focus onproviding relief of symptoms and preventing infectionIf a resident with AIDS has a poor appetite, the nursing assistant (NA) shouldserve familiar and favorite foodsResidents who have AIDs and have infections of the mouth amy need to eat food that islow in acidA resident with AIDs who has nausea and vomiting shouldeat high-fat foodsFluids are important for residents who have diarrhea becauseDiarrhea rapidly depletes the body of fluidsThe following is help[ful ind ealign with numbness, tingling, and pain in the feetusing a bed cradleIf a resident with cancer is experiencing pain,t he Na shouldassist with comfort measuresWhich of the following would be the best response by the NA if a resident with cancer expresses fear and concern about her condition?"I understand you're scared. Do you feel like talking?"To help promote good nutrition for a resident with cancer the NA should do the following:serve favorite foods that are nutritiousWhat are six basic human needs?Food, water, sleep, comfort, activity, and protection/shelterWhat are six psychosocial needs that humans have?Love/affection, acceptance by others, safety/security, self-reliance/independence/daily living, contact with others,and success/self-esteemthe ability to engage ins exual activites continues unlessdisease or injury occursResidents have the legal right to choose how toexpress their sexualityNursing assistants must respect residents'sexual orientationThe nursing assistant should always knock and wait for a response beforeentering residents' roomsIf a nursing assistant encounters a resident being sexually abused,he should take the resident to a safe place and then notify the nurseA loss of independence isvery difficult for a person to deal withA nursing assistant should allow a resident to do a taskindependently even if it is easier for the Na to do it.Activities of daily living (ADLs)are personal care tasks a person does every day to care for himselfNAs should encourageself-care regardless of how long it takes or how poorly residents are able to do it.A loss of independence can causeincreased dependenceColonOne type of cancer that regular physical activity lessens the risk ofUrinary tracttype of infection that inactivity can result inStressthe ability to cope with this is one benefit of regular activityGroomingNursing assistants can help residents with this as needed and requested before scheduled activities beginOBRAAbbreviation for federal law that requires that facilities provide an activities program that meets the interests of residentsAppetiteIn addition to promoting better eating habits, regular activity increases thisHow is the family of today defined?By support of one anotherA child takes three years from birth to be able tomove around, communicate basic needs, and feed himselfTantrums are common amongtoddlersChildren learn language skills between the ages of 3 to 6.From the ages of 6 to 10, children learn to get along with each otherThree abilities that may be affected by developmental disabilitiesLearning, communicating, movingFour guidelines for caring for a resident who has an intellectual disabilitybe patient, encourage social interaction, promote independence, help with ADLs dividing into smaller tasks,Uneasiness or fear, often about a situation or condition, is calledAnxietyAn intense form of anxiety or fear is called a(n)PhobiaWhich of the following means a lack of interest in activities?ApathyA false sensory perception, such as a person seeing her mother who has been dead for many years in front of her, is a(n)hallucinationA persistent false belief, such as a person believing that a resident in the next room can read his thoughts, is a(n)DelusionWhich of the following types of mental illness is characterized by changing moods, high energy, and big speeches?Bipolar disorderA method of treating mental illness that involves talking about one's problems with mental health professionals calledPsychotherapyDenialpeople in the denial stage may refuse to believe they are dying.AngerOnce they start to face the possibility of their death, people may become angry that they are dying.BargainingOnce people have begun to believe that they are drying, they may make promises to God, car providers, or others.DepressionAs dying people get weaker and symptoms get worse, they may become deeply sad or depressed.AcceptanceMany people who are dying are eventually able to accept death and prepare for it.Advance directiveslegal documents that allow people to choose what medical care they wish to have if they are unable to make those decisions themselves.Living willoutlines the medical care a person wants, or does not want, in case he or she becomes unable to make those decisions.Durable power of attorney for health careA signed, dated, and witnessed legal document that appoints someone else to make medical decisions for a person in the event he or she becomes unable to do so.Nursing assistants should_____bathe perspiring residents often; skin should be clean and dryResidents may not be able to communicate that they are in____________pain NAs should observe for signs and report them.Changes of position, back massage, skin care, mouth care, and___________proper body alignment may help relieve pain_____________may be one of the most important things a nursing assistant can do for a resident who is dying. He should pay attention to these conversations.Listening_________ can be very important. Holding a dying resident's hand can be very comforting.TouchDo not ______ the dying person or his family.avoid_______ is usually the last sense to leave the bodyHearingGive _______for visits from clergy, family, and friends.privacyNAs should not discuss their personal_____________religious or spiritual beliefs with residents or their families or make recommendations.What are four legal rights to remembers when working with residents who are dying?The right to refuse treatment, the right to not be deceived, the right to be free from pain, and the right to not die aloneAfter death, the muscles int he body becomestiff and rigidCaring for a body after death is calledpostmortem careAfter death, the nursing assistant should place drainage pads under the body. These pads are most often neededunder the perineumIf a family members would like to remain with their loved one's body after death, the NA shouldlet them do soHospice is the term for compassionate care given toresidents who are dyingHospice care encourages residents toparticipate in their own care as much as possibleHospice goals focus oncomfort and dignity of the dying personFocusing on pain relief, comfort, and dignity is called__________ care.palliativeDementiathe loss of mental abilities such as thinking, remembering, reasoning, and communicating.A common cause of dementia is_______Alzheimer's DiseaseAlzheimer's disease causestangled nerve fibers and protein deposits to form in the brain, eventually causing dementia.When communicating with a resident with AD, the nursing assistant (NA) shouldspeak slowly, using a lower tone of voice than normalIf a resident is frightened or anxious , which of the following should the NA do?Check the body language so he does not appear tense or hurriedIf a resident perseverates, this means he isrepeating words, phrases, questions, or actionsIf a resident does not remember how to perform basic tasks, the NA shouldEncourage the resident to do what he canUse nonslip mats, tub seats, and hand-holdsto ensure safety during bathingBreak tasks down into simple steps,explaining one step at a time.Mark the bathroom with a sign or pictureas a reminder of when to use it and where it is.Good or Bad: Break tasks down into simple steps, explaining one step at a timeGoodGood or Bad: If the resident is incontinent, do not give him fluids because ti makes the problem worse.BadGood or Bad:Choose clothes that are simple to put on.GoodGood or Bad: Check the skin regularly for sign of irritationGoodFollow Standard Precautions when caring for the residentGoodGood or Bad:Do not encourage exercise, as this will make the resident more agitatedBadGood or Bad: Serve finger foods if the resident tends to wander during mealsGoodGood or Bad: Schedule meals at the same time every dayGoodGood or Bad: Serve new kinds of foods as often as possible to stimulate the residentBadGood or Bad:Put only one kind of food on the plate at a time.GoodGood or Bad:Use plain white dishes for serving food to residents with Alzheimer's diseaseGoodGood or Bad:Do not encourage independence, as this can lead to aggressive behaviorBadGood or Bad: Reward behavior with smiles and warm touches.GoodAgitationA resident who is excited, restless, or troubled is said to be agitated.Sundowningwhen a person gets restless and agitated in the late afternoon, evening, or nightCatastrophic Reactionswhen a person with AD overreacts to somethingViolent BehaviorA resident who attacks, hits, or threatens someone is violentPacing & Wanderinga resident who walks back and forth in the same area / a resident who walks aimlessly around the facilityHallucinations or DelusionsA resident who sees, hears, smells, tastes, or feels things that are not there/ A resident who believes things that are not trueDepressionWhen residents become withdrawn, lack energy, or do not eat or do things they used to enjoy, they may be depressed.Perseveration/ Repetitive PhrasingA resident who repeats a word, phrase, question, or activity over and over is perseveratingDisruptivenessAnything that disturbs others, such as yelling, banging on furniture, slamming doors, etc.Inappropriate Social Behaviorcursing, name calling, or other behaviorInappropriate Sexual Behaviorremoving clothes, touching one's own genitals, or trying to touch others can embarrass those who see itPillagingtaking things that belong to someone elseHoardingcollecting and putting things away in a guarded way.Sleep DisturbancesResidents with AD may experience a number of sleep disturbancesReality Orientationusing calendars, clocks, signs and lists to help residents remember who and where they areValidatinggiving value to or approvingReminiscence therapyencouraging residents to remember and talk about the pastActivity therapyuses activities that the resident enjoys to prevent boredom and frustrationPromoting independence isa part of a nursing assistant's care of residentsStyling one's hair is part ofgrooming oneselfHaving care explained beforeit is performed is a resident's legal rightNAs should knock and wait for permissionto enter a resident's roomWhen skin is this color, it should not be massagedredOne type of material that prevents air from circulating, causing the skin to sweatplasticA problem that can result from pulling a resident across the sheet when transferring himshearingKeeps top sheets from resting on the legs and feetbed cradlesomething that can be placed under the back and buttocks to absorb moisture or perspiration that may build upsheepskinthe bottom sheet on a resident's bed must be kept tight and free from__________wrinklesthe minimum number of hours at which immobile residents should be repositionedtwoskin should be kept clean and ______dryLateral position includesthe person lying on their side with one arm crossed over a pillow and the other laying flat, with one leg up with a pillow under their knee and a sheet under their feetLateral position points areside of the head, ear, shoulder, hip greater trochanter, knees and anklesProne position includesthe person lying stomach/face down on a pillow with a pillow under their feetprone position points arecheek, collarbone, breasts(women), genitals (men), knees, and toesSupine position points areback of head, shoulder blades, elbows, abdomen, sacrum (spine base), between the legs, and the heelsSupine position includesthe person lying on their back with a pillow underneath their hips and underneath their kneesWhen skin begins to breakdown, to becomes pale, white, or a reddened colorTruePressure ulcers usually occur in areasof the body where bone is close to the skinResidents seated in wheelchairsneed to be repositionedProper nutrition helpskeep the skin healthyAnother name for pressure ulcers isdecubitus ulcersOrthosisa type of device that helps support and align a limbfootboardplaced against the feet to keep them properly aligned and to prevent foot dropbed cradlekeeps bed covers from resting on the legs and feetdraw sheetused to help residents who cannot help with turning or moving in bed;helps prevent skin damage from shearingBony prominencesareas of the body where the bone lies close to the skinHandrollskeeps fingers from curling tightlyTrochanter rollskeeps hips form turning outwardOrthotic devicehelps support and align a limb and improve its functioningPressure pointsareas of the body that bear much of its weightA partial bath includes washing a resident'sgenitalswhich of the following should be used to wash the resident's face when giving a bed bath?washcloth and waterWho is best able to choose a comfortable water temperature for the resident?the residentHow hot should the water be when shampooing a resident's hair?no higher then 110FThe resident's perineum should be washedonce a weekwhich of the following products should be used when giving a shower or tub bathshampooEncourage residents to wearcasual clothes not nightclothes during the dayProvide privacyby never exposing more than you need to.For residents who have weakness or paralysis on one side, place theweaker arm or leg through the garment first.When undressing start withthe stronger side.The resident's clothing for the day should be chosen by theresidentFront-opening bras are easierfor female residents to work by themselvesA fracture pan is used for voidingresidents who cannot raise their hipsMen will generally use a ______ for urination when they cannot get out of bedurinalResidents who can get out bed but cannot walk to the bathroom may use a (n)portable commodeWhich of the following statements is true?When handling body wastes, the nursing assistant should wear glovesFowler's positionwhen the patient is sitting at a 45 or 90 degree angleSimswhen the person is lying flat with a leg upWhy do residents who spend a lot of time in bed or wheelchairs need to be re positioned often?they are at risk of skin breakdown and pressure ulcersIn this position the resident is lying on his stomachProneIn this position the resident is lying on either sideLateralSome residents have a side of the body that is weaker than the other one. The weaker side of the body should be referred to as theinvolved sideA draw sheet is used toreposition residents without causing shearingLogrolling ismoving a resident as unit without disturbing alignmentDanglinga way to help residents regain balance before standing upWhich of the followingAdmissionThe first time a nursing assistant meets a new residentThe NA should try to make sure the resident has aGood impression of her and the facilityThe NA should prepare theRoom before the resident arrivesThe NA should ask the family to find outA resident's personal preferences and routinesThe NA should introduce herselfTo the resident and state her positionThe NA should always call a residentBy her formal name until she tells the NA what she prefers to be calledThe NA should try to make sure the new resident feelsWelcome and wantedThe NA should not rushThe process or the new residentThe NA can help the resident by explaining daily lifeIn the facility and offering to take the resident on a tourNew residents must be given a copy of theirLegal rightsA resident has a legal right to have hisPersonal items that he has brought with him treated carefullyResidents should be informed ofTransfers as early as possibleThe nursing assistant should introduceThe resident to everyone in the new areaOBRA requires that residents haveThe right to receive advance notice before they are dischargedWhich of the following is the normal temperature range for the oral method?97.6-99.6Which of the following thermometers is used to take a temperature in the earTympanic thermometerWhich of the following temperature sites is another word for the armpit area?AxillaWhich temperature site is considered to be the most accurate?Rectum (rectal)A rectal thermometer is usually color-codedRedWhich pulse is most often used for measuring pulse rate?Radial pulseFor adults, the normal pulse rate is60-100 beats per minuteBreathing air into the lungs is also calledInspirationExhaling air out of the lungs is also calledExpirationThe normal respiration rate for adults ranges from12-20 breaths per minuteWhy is it important for NAs to observe respirations without letting residents know what they are doing?People may breathe more quickly if they know they are being observedWhich of the following is considered a high blood pressure reading?145/85Which of the following is a blood pressure cuff used to measure blood pressure?SphygmomanometerThe second measurement of blood pressure reflects the phase when the heart relaxes. It is called the______ phaseDiastooBlood pressure measurements are recorded as_______FractionsIn the ________phase of blood pressure, the heart is at work, contracting and pushing blood from the left ventricle of the heart.SystolicA pulse oximeter measuresBlood oxygen level and pulse rateThe purpose of restraints isTo restrict voluntary movement or behaviorAn example of a physical restraint isRaised side rails on a bedA chemical restraint isMedication used to control behaviorWhat is one reason the use of restraints has been restricted?They were sometimes abused by caregiversA restraint can be usedWhen a doctor has ordered it iseRestraint-free care means thatRestraints are never used for any reasonRestraint alternatives areAny interventions used in place of a restraintFluids come in the form of liquids that a personDrinks, as well as semi-liquid foods such as soup or gelatinThe fluid a person consumes is calledIntake or inputFluid balance is taking in and eliminatingThe same amounts of fluidHatCollection container put into toilet to collect samplesStool SpecimenUrine and toliet paper should not be included with this specimenSpecimenA sample that is used for analysis in order to try and make a diagnosisRoutine urine specimenUrine sample collected any time resident voidsClean-catch specimenExcludes first and last urine from sampleSputum specimenEarly morning is the best time to collect this specimenCatheterThin tube inserted into the body that is used to drain or inject fluidsCondom catheterUrinary catheter that has an attachment that fits into the penisIn dwelling catheterUrinary catheter that stays inside the bladder for a period of timeStraight catheterUrinary catheter that is removed immediately after urine is drainedUrinary catheterThin tube used to drain urine from the bladderOxygen is prescribed byA doctorOxygen should be turned off inThe event of a fireNAs should check the skin aroundOxygen masks and tubing for irritationIV lines allow direct access toThe bloodstreamWhat is the NA's responsibility for IV care?Documenting and reporting observationsIf the fluid in an IV bag is nearly gone, the NA shouldNotify the nurseA resident's room is his home andmust be treated with respectCall lights must alway beAnswered quicklyResidents have a legal right to have theirPrivacy protected when receiving careIf an NA is asked to use a piece of equipment he does not know how to use, he shouldAsk for helpCall lights should be placedWithin the resident's reachWhy is it important for NAs to change bed linen often?To prevent infection and to promote comfortWhy should soiled bed linen be carried away from the NA's body?To prevent contamination of clothingWhen removing dirty linen, the NA shouldRoll it so that the soiled area is insideWhen a resident cannot get out of bedThe bed should be raised to a safe height before making itSoiled linen should be baggedAt the point of originA bed made with the bedspread and blankets in place is called a(n)Closed bedSterile dressings coverOpen or draining woundsA ______changes sterile dressingsNurseNon-sterile dressings are applied to dry,______ wounds that have less chance of_______ infection.Closed;infectionNursing assistants may ____________ non-sterile dressingsBe able to changeElastic bandages are also known asACE BandagesOne purpose of elastic bandages is toHold a dressing in placeHow soon should an NA check on a resident after applying a bandage?15 MinutesProteinGood sources of these are fish,meat, beans, soy products, and cheeseWaterWithout this, a person can only live a few daysFatsThese help the body store energyThese add flavor to food and help to absorb certain vitaminsfatsThey are essential for tissue growht and repairproteinsexamples of these are butter, oil and salad dressingfatsthe body cannot produce most of thesemineralsThese provide fibercarbohydratesexample of these include bread, cereal, and potatoescarbohydratesThis is the most essential nutrient for lifewaterThese can be classified as monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, and saturatedfatsThrough perspiration, this helps to maintain body temperaturewaterthese can be fat-soluble or water-solublevitaminsone half to two-thirds of body weight is thiswateriron and calcium are examples of thesemineralsMyPlate's guidelines state that half of a person's plate should be made up ofgrains and proteinOut of the following choices,which color of vegetables has the best nutritional content?dark greenMost of a person's fruit choices should bewhole or cut-up fruitWhat kinds of grains are best to consume?whole grainsWhich of the following is considered a plant-based protein?Beanswheat, rice, oats, cornmeal and barley are examples of which food groupgrainsMost dairy group choices should below-fatwhich of the following foods is considered high in sodium?pickleLow-fat/low-cholesterol dietpeople at risk for heart attacks and heart disease may be placed on this diet. This diet permits skim milk, low-fat cottage cheese, fish, and white meat of turkey and chicken.Vegetarian dietHealth reasons, a dislike of meat, a compassion for animals, or a belief in non-violence may lead a person to this dietLow-protein dietPeople who have kidney disease may also be on this diet, which encourages foods like breads and pastaSoft diet and mechanical soft dietthis diet consists of soft or chopped foods that are easy to chew. Foods that are hard to chew and swallow, such as raw vegetables, will be restricted.Pureed dietthe food used in this diet has been ground into a thick paste of baby-food consistencyLow-sodium dietsalt is restricted in this dietFluid-restricted dietto prevent further heart or kidney damage, doctors may restrict fluid intake on this dietModified calorie dietthis diet is used for losing weight or preventing weight gainLiquid dietthis diet consists of foods that are in a liquid state at body temperature and is usually ordered as clear or full.Diabetic dietCarb counting may be part of this diet, as the amount of carbohydrates eaten must be carefully regulatedfluid overload occurs when the body is unable tohandle the amount of fluid consumedthe sense of thirst lessen asa person agespeople can become dehydrated byvomiting too mucha symptom of fluid overload isedema of the extremitiesIn order to prevent dehydration,a nursing assistant should offer fresh fluids to residents oftena symptom of dehydration isdark urineThe NA should make sure thatthe water pitcher and cup are light enough for the resident to liftEncourage residents toeatGive_______before and after mealsoral careHonor residents'________ likes and dislikesfoodOffer different kinds of foods and_______beveragesAllow enough________ for residents to finish eatingtimeTell the nurse if residents have trouble usingutensilsPosition resident sitting_______for eatinguprightOf resident has had a loss of _________ ask about itappetite and/or seems sadRecord meal/snackintakeshould be washed before residents eathandsproper position for eating that helps prevent swallowing problemsuprightsomething that has a positive effect on eating and helps prevent loneliness and boredomsocializingUse of eyeglasses, hearing aids, and these should be encourageddenturesdevices that can help residents with eatingassistivenoise level should be kept_______when residents are eatinglowIt is important for NAs to identify each residentbefore serving meal traysThe resident's mouth should be emptybefore the NA offers another bite of foodResidents should be sitting upright at a90 degree angle for eatingAlternating cold and hot foods or bland foods and sweets canhelp increase appetiteNectar Thickthick juice, can be put in a cupHoney Thickas thick as honey, needs a spoon to consumePudding Thicksemi-solid, the spoon stands upRedness or drainage around the openingshould be reportedNAs should give careful skin care for residents whomust remain in bed for long periods to help prevent pressure ulcersIt is important for the NA to wash his hands before assisting in any waywith a tube feedingUse _______devices such as utensils with built-up handle grips, plate guards, and drinking cups when necessaryassistiveFor visually-impaired residents, use the face of an imaginary_______ to explain the position of what is in front of them.clockFor residents who have had a stroke, place food in the unaffected,or ______side of the mouthstrongerResidents with Parkinson's disease may need help if _________or shaking make it difficult for them to eattremorsThe hand-over-hand approach is an example of a physical______that can help promote independence.cueVerbal cues must be short and _______ and prompt the resident to do something.clearIf a resident has poor sitting balance, seat him in a regular dining room chair with armrests, rather than in a ______wheelchairPut the resident int he proper position in the chair, which means hips are at a ________ degree angle, knees are flexed, and feet and arms are fully supported.90If the resident bites down on utensils, ask him to ______his mouthopenIf the resident pockets food in his cheeks, ask him to chew and_______the foodswallowWhat is the goal of rehabilitation?To reach the level of functionality of a normal personWhat is the goal of restorative care?To keep the resident at the level achieved by rehabilitationTasks should be broken downInto small stepsIt is important for the NA to reportAny signs of depression or mods changes in a residentAssistive devices help residentsperform their activities of daily living (ADLs)Ambulation is another word forwalkingSupportive devices are used to assist residents withpersonal careSafety devices are used forpreventing accidentsa resident who has some difficulty with balance but can bear weight on both legs should use awalkerWhen helping a visually-impaired resident walk, it is important for the NA tolet the resident walk beside and slightly behind herWhich of the following assistive devices for walking has four rubber-tipped feet?Quad caneWhen using a cane, the resident should place it on his_____ side.weakerObserve principles of_______.alignmentRemember that proper alignment is based on a straight______.linePillows_____or rolled or folded______may be needed to support the small of the back and raise the knees or head in the supine positionpillows;blanketsKeep body parts in natural_______.positions.In a natural hand position, the fingers are slightly_____.curled.Use_______to keep covers from resting on feet in the supine positionbed cradlesPrevent external rotation of ______.hipsChange ___________ often to prevent muscle stiffness and pressure ulcers.positionsThis should be done at least every _______ hourstwoA prosthesis is a device that repalce a body part that ismissing or deformed because of an accident, injury, illness, or birth defectwhen observing the skin on the stump, it is important that NA checkfor signs of skin breakdown caused by pressure and abrasionSupinationturning the hand to the rightFlexionTurning the arm towards the bodyDorsiflexionturning the feet towards the bodyPronationturning the hand to the leftAbductionmoving the leg away from the bodyExtensionmoving the forearm away from the bodyRotationrotating your forearm in a circular motionAdductionmoving the leg toward the bodyoppositionmoving the thumb of the had toward the pinkyin what order should the NA perform ROM exercises?He should start from the shoulders and work downwardIf a resident reports pain during ROM exercises, the NA shouldstop the exercises and report the pain to the nurseHow many times will the NA repeat each exercise while assisting with range of motion?at least 3 timesResidents may need help to restore regular______ and _______.routine; normal functionWear _______ when handling body wastes,glovesExplain the training_________to the resident.scheduleKeep a _______of bladder and bowel habitsrecordEncourage plenty of _________and foods that are high in ______fluids and fiberProvide_________for elimination, both in the bed and bathroom.privacyHelp with______care, which can prevent skin breakdownperinealDiscard clothing_______ and ______ briefs properlyprotectors; incontinencePraise_____and______to control bladder and bowelssuccess;attemptsNever show _______or_______toward an incontinent residentfrustration; angerThe Internet is a gods resource to use toTry and find a jobIdentification required by a potential employerMay include a social security cardAppropriate for a job interview:wearing jeansNot appropriateLooking happy to be thereappropriateWearing very little jewelryappropriateasking how many hours you would workappropriateSitting up straightappropriateShaking hands with the interviewerappropriateWhen is an appropriate time to discuss an issue that is causing conflict in the workplace?when the NA is upset because something has just occurredwhen trying to resolve a conflict, the NA shouldtake turns speakingWhen discussing conflict, the NA shouldstate how she feels when a behavior occursTo resolve a conflict, the NA should be prepared tocompromisewhen is an appropriate time to discuss an issue that is causing conflict in the workplace?When the supervisor has decided on a proper time and placeWhen trying to resolve a conflict, the NA shouldtake turns speakingwhen discussing conflict, the NA shouldstate how she feels when a behavior occursTo resolve a conflict,the NA should be prepared tocompromiseOBRA requires that nursing assistants complete at least_____ hours of initial training before being employed75OBRA requires that nursing assistants complete _____ hours of annual continuing education12After completing a training course, nursing assistants are given a(n)_______ in order to be certified to work in a particular state.competency examInformation in each state's registry of nursing assistants includesany findings of abuse or neglectTreatment or regulationscan changeIn-service continuing education courses helpkeep an NA's knowledge freshStress is a _____ response.physical and emotionalWhen the heart beats fast in stressful situations, it can be a result of the increase of the hormoneadrenalinea healthy lifestyle includesexercising regularlyWhich of the following is a sign that a person is not managing stress?not being able to focus on workWhich of the following are appropriate people for an NA to turn to for help in managing stress?supervisorscommunicationis the process of exchanging information with othersverbal communicationthe exchange of spoken or written language with others during interactionsnonverbal communicationcommunication using body movements, gestures, and facial expressions rather than speechobjective informationis based on what a person sees hears touches or smellssubjective informationis something a person cannot see or is there is based on something that a resident reports that may or may not be true also cold symptomssightthe na should look for changes in the appearance such as rashes redness, swellinghearingany should listen to What the residents says about his condition is resonant speaking clearly breathing normal coughing gasping wheezingtouchdoes the residents skin feel hot or cold moist or dry is the pulse rate regularsmellare there any odors coming from the residence bodyincontinenceis the inability to control the bladder or bowelsDermaskinBradyslowrootis part of a word that contains its basic meaningprefixis the word part that comes before the route to help form a new wordSuffixesis the part added to the word at the end of the root that helps form a new wordpathydiseaseneuronerve, nervous systemPRNas necessaryclicheare phrases that are used over and over again and do not really mean anythingdefense mechanismsare unconscious behavior used to release tension or cope with stressdenialcompletely rejecting the thought or feelingProjectionseeing feelings in others that are really one's ownDisplacementtransferring a negative feelings to a safer situationrationalizationmaking excuses to justify the situationrepressionblocking painful thoughts or feelings from the mindregressiongoing back to an old unusual immature Behaviorculturea system of learned behaviors practiced by a group of people that is considered to be tradition of the group and is passed on from one generation to the nextimpairmentis a loss of function or ability it can be a partial or complete lossMental Healthis the normal functioning of emotional and intellectual abilitiesmental illnessis the disorder that involves emotions and mental functionscombativeviolent or hostile Behaviorbody mechanicsis the way the parts of the body work together when a person movespostureis the way a person holds and positions his bodybase of supportis the foundation that supports an object the feet are the body's .....center of gravityis the point where the most weight is concentrated when a person stands weight is centered in the pelvisfractureA break in a bonedisorientationconfusion about person place or timescaldsare Burns caused by hot liquids temperature to get a serious burn is 140 Fahrenheittemperature coffee is served160 fahrenheit to 180 Fahrenheitabrasionan injury that runs off the surface of the skin a cut that usually happens in the bathroomOSHA occupational safety and health administrationso the federal government agency that makes rules to protect workers from hazards on the jobpasspull the pin aim at the base of the fire when spraying squeeze the handle sweep back and forth at the base of the fireRACERemove residents activate alarm/call 911 Contain fire extinguishConsciousmeans being mentally Alert in having awareness of surrounding Sensations and thoughtsfirst aidEmergency care given to an ill or injured person before medical help arrivescardiopulmonary resuscitationCPR refers to medical procedures used when a person's heart or lungs have stopped workingobstructed Airwaybut something is blocking the tube through it air enters the lungsabdominal thrustsMethod of attempting to remove an object from the airway of someone who is choking.cyanoticblue tinted skin or inability to speak breathe or coughshockwhen organs and tissues in the body do not receive an adequate body suppliesdyspneadifficulty breathinginsulin reactionHypoglycemia leading to insulin coma caused by too much insulin or too little foodDiabetic ketoacidosisdka or hyperglycemia is caused by having too little insulincelebral vascular accidentCVA or stroke occurs when blood supply to a part of the brain is blocked or a blood vessel leaks or ruptures within the braintransient ischemic attackwarning sign of a CVA results of a temporary lack of oxygen in the brain in a mini strokeemesisvomitinginfection preventionis the term for methods practice in healthcare facilities to prevent and control the spread of diseasemicroorganism MOdoes a living thing or organism that is so small that can only be seen under a microscopemicrobeanother name for a microorganism always present in the environmentInfectionsoccur when harmful microorganisms called pathogens invade the body and multiplypathogensharmful microorganismslocalized infectionis limited to a specific location of the bodysystemic infectionsaffects the entire body this type of infection travels through the bloodstream and it spread throughout the bodyhealthcare-associated infection Haiis an infection acquired in a healthcare setting during the delivery of Medical CareChain of Infectionis a way of describing how disease is transmitted from one being to anothernumber one causative agenta pathogenic microorganism that causes disease including bacteria viruses fungi parasitesnumber two Reservoiris where the pathogen lives and grows can be a human animal plant soil or a substancenumber 3 portal of exitanybody opening on an infected person that allows pathogens to leave including nose mouth eyes or cut in the skinnumber four mode of transmissiondescribe how to pass a pathogen travels can occur through the air or through direct or indirect contactnumber 5 portal of entryany body opening on an uninfected person that allows pathogens to enter which includes nose mouth eyes and other mucous membranes Cuts in the skin and cracked skinnumber 6 susceptible hostis an unaffected person who can get sick samples include all healthcare workers and anyone in their care who is not infecteddirect contacthappens by touching the infected person or his secretionsindirect contactresults from touching something contaminated by the infected person such as a needle dressing or tissuemucous membranesare the membranes that line body cavities that open to the outside of the body which include mouth nose eyes rectum and genitalstransmissionpassage or transferinfectiousdisease can be blocked by using proper infection prevention practices such as hand-washingMedical asepsisthe first two measures used to reduce and prevent the spread of pathogensSurgical asepsissterile technique is the state of being free from all microorganisms not just pathogens is used for many types of proceduresCenters for Disease Control and prevention CDCis it government agency under the Department of Health and Human Services issues information to protect the health of individuals and communitiessputummucus coughed upSharpsNeedles or other sharp objects.hand hygienewashing hands with either playing or anti steps of soap and water and using alcohol-based hand rubsantimicrobialagent destroys resist or prevent the development of pathogenspersonal protective equipment PPEis equipment that helps protect employees from serious injuries or illnesses resulting from contact with workplace hazardsDonto put on gowns math goggles face shielddoffto remove or take offperineal carecare of the genitals and anal areanon-intact skinscandals broken by abrasion cut rashes acne pimples lesions surgical inclusions are boilscleanfree from organisms causing diseasedirtyhas been contaminated with pathogenssterilizationis a cleaning measure that destroys all microorganisms including pathogensdisposableequipment is discarded after one usedisinfectionis it process or kills pathogens but does not destroy all pathogenstransmission based precautionsprecautions that are used when caring for persons who are infected or suspected of being infected with a diseasebloodborne pathogensare microorganisms found in human blood that cause infection and diseasehepatitisis inflammation of the liver caused by certain viruses in other factors such as alcohol abuse some medications and TraumaTuberculosis TBis it highly contagious lung disease caused by a bacterium that is carried on mucous droplets suspended in the airMRSA Methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureusis an antibiotic-resistant infection often acquired in healthcare facilities spread through direct and indirect contactVRE vancomycin resistant enterococusbacteria that live in the digestive and genital tracks spread through direct and indirect contactC-diff clostridium difficileis a Spore forming bacteria which can be part of the normal intestinal Flora produces a toxin that causes a watery diarrhea causes from overuse of antibiotics can be passed by direct contact or indirect contact