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GI quizzizz week 9 & 8
Terms in this set (62)
The BLANK counter-transporter secretes hydrogen ions into the lumen of the proximal tubule.
A normal blood pH is between BLANK .
7.35 and 7.45
Historically, the normal value for anion gap has been BLANK .
Major anion(s) used to calculate the anion gap include BLANK .
Cl- and HCO3-
The equation to calculate anion gap is BLANK
anion gap = Na+ - (Cl- + HCO3-)
he most important buffer in the body is the BLANK .
bicarbonate buffer system
The anion gap is the difference in the measured BLANK and the measured anions in plasma.
The two organs that plays a major role in maintaining pH in the body are BLANK .
the lungs and kidneys
Decreased respiratory rate can cause retention of CO2 leading to respiratory (acidosis/alkalosis) .
NH3 in the (section of the nephron) BLANK binds to hydrogen ions and prevents the pH from falling.
Major cation(s) used to calculate the anion gap include BLANK .
In the bicarbonate buffer system, the enzyme, BLANK , catalyzes the reaction between carbon dioxide with water to form carbonic acid.
pH depends on the concentration of BLANK ions
If the pH is too low in the blood, the extra H+ ions bind to BLANK .
In the kidney, most of the bicarbonate is reabsorbed in the (section of the nephron) BLANK .
The BLANK system is an acid-base homeostatic mechanism involving the balance of carbonic acid, bicarbonate ion, and carbon dioxide in order to maintain pH.
In renal failure where large amounts of HCO3- is lost, it can lead to metabolic (acidosis/alkalosis) .
As the HCO3− level increases in the blood, the pH (increases/decreases) .
Carbonic acid dissociates into hydrogen H+ ions and BLANK .
A BLANK prevents major shifts in the overall pH of a fluid.
As hydrogen ion concentration increases, the pH (increases/decreases) .
As PCO2 increases in the blood, the pH (increases/decreases) .
Carbonic acid can be formed by H2O and BLANK .
If the pH is too high in the blood, carbonic acid dissociates to release more BLANK ions.
About BLANK percent of the urea filtered is normally found in the final urine.
In the kidneys, urea is (reabsorbed/secreted) into the loop of henle.
When the filtered load of glucose exceeds the reabsorptive capacity of the nephron then BLANK occurs.
Para-aminohippuric acid is an organic acid that is filtered and secreted but not BLANK .
Para-aminohippuric acid is the substance most commonly used to measure BLANK .
renal plasma flow
Sodium-glucose cotransport is considered BLANK transport because ATP is used to directly energize the Na-K-ATPase and indirectly maintain the sodium gradient.
BLANK are the two proteins involved in facilitated diffusion of glucose into peritubular capillary blood.
GLUT1 and GLUT2
All of filtered glucose is reabsorbed in the nephron at concentrations less than BLANK mg/dL.
Renal urea handling is regulated by BLANK hormone.
Glucose carriers in the nephron are completely saturated and reabsorption levels are maximal at plasma concentrations above BLANK mg/dL.
Two sodium ions and one glucose molecule bind to the BLANK cotransporter protein in the nephron luminal membrane.
Glucose is transported into the peritubular capillary blood from the cell via (mechanism) BLANK through the GLUT1 and GLUT2 transporters.
In the nephron, glucose is reabsorbed into the intracellular fluid (with/against) the electrochemical gradient.
The Na-glucose cotransporters in the nephron generally have a (high/low) BLANK affinity for glucose.
In the kidneys, urea is (reabsorbed/secreted) in the collecting ducts.
BLANK is the amount of glucose that can be reabsorbed before glucose transporters are saturated.
Para-aminohippuric acid is an organic acid that is filtered and secreted into tubular fluid and (is/is not) reabsorbed.
Glucose reabsorption involves a BLANK cotransporter across the luminal membrane of the nephron.
Which of the following statements is incorrect about bicarbonate ions HCO3-?
most bicarbonate ions are reabsorbed in the distal tubule (should be proximal tubule)
Which of the following will help you compensate for lung obstruction with resulting buildup of CO2 resulting in respiratory acidosis?
none of the above
(increased excretion of HCO3-, buffers in blood, altered breathing)
Glycosuria is most likely to occur with:
increased GFR and increased blood glucose level
The minimum pH that urine can create is
The [H of the body fluids is stabilized by buffer systems. Which of the following compounds is the most effective buffer system at physiological pH?
Which of the following statements concerning acid-base metabolism are correct?
alkalosis occurs if the lungs do not excrete carbon dioxide adequately.
Which of the following is freely filtered in the glomerulus into Bowman's capsule and reabsorbed entirely in the proximal tubule?
Diabetes leads to glucose in the urine because
blood glucose concentrations are elevated and proximal tubule cannot reabsorb all the filtered glucose
carbonic anhydrase plays an important rolein all of the following except:
the renal handling of HCO3- within the lumen of the tubules of the distal nephron
Glucose reabsorption occurs in the lumen of ______ by ________.
proximal tubule, cotransport
The amount of H+ excreted as titratable acid bound to phosphate would be increased by all of the following except:
an increase in the pH of the urine
Which of the following is not a feature of metabolic acidosis?
a high plasma CO2
Which of the following is not a feature of metabolic acidosis?
the plasma bicarbonate is raised
Which has the greatest renal clearance?
Most of the glucose that is filtered through the glomerulus undergoes reabsorption in the:
Proximal Convoluted Tubule
Which of the following will help you compensate for diarrhea with resulting metabolic acidosis?
altered rapid breathing
In which of the following conditions with metabolic acidosis, the anion gap remains in the normal range?
diarrhea (because you are losing isotonic volume)
A student is nervous for a big exam and is breathing rapidly. Which of the following might occur?
Which of the following statements is true?
a rise in the plasma level of bicarbonate ions (HCO3-) will directly raise the pH of plasma
Which of the following is the most common cation used to calculate anion gap?
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