Lab 7 Concepts

Define and distinguish between the pulmonary and systemic circuits.
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-Aortic arch contains three large branches
-First is brachiocephalic artery, that divides into R subclavian artery and R common carotid artery
-Second is L common carotid artery
-Third is left subclavian artery
-There is also the descending aorta (which becomes the abdominal aorta once it passes through the diaphragm)
-Abdominal artery gives off celiac trunk and mesenteric arteries and renal and testicular/ovarian arteries
-Aorta then bifurcates (splits into two branches) forming iliac arteries with internal iliac supplying blood to pelvis and external iliac supplying blood to lower limb.
-External becomes femoral artery as it passes beneath inguinal ligament
Where does the R ventricle pump blood into? L ventricle?-R ventricle: pulmonary trunk -L ventricle: aortaDescribe the muscular ridges in the heart.-Pectinate muscles are on the internal wall of the auricles of the atria -Trabeculae carneae are inside the ventriclesCompare the tricuspid and bicuspid valve.-Tricuspid valve has three cusps where the bicuspid only has twoWhy are chordae tendineae and papillary muscles important?-CT: Anchor cusps to walls of ventricles -PM: hold chordae tendinae in place, their contraction prevents prolapse of the valve into the atriumWhat is an ostia? Where are the ostia for the coronary blood vessels found?-Opening -Ostia for coronary blood vessels found just above aortic semilunar valve at base of aortaHow do the veins of the thorax vary from the arteries branching from the aorta?-Follow a very symmetrical patternWhat do the left and right brachiocephalic veins combine to form? What forms a brachiocephalic vein? From where does superior vena cava receive blood from?-Superior vena cava -BCV formed by merging of subclavian vein and internal jugular vein -Receives blood from thorax, head, and upper limbsWhat is the function of the conducting division?-Transmits air to and from alveoliFunction of the nasal septum?-Separates the two nasal cavitiesWhat is the function of the hard palate?-Separates nasal and oral cavitiesFunction of the mucosa in the nasal cavity?-Heats and humidifies airWhy are the conchae important?-Maximize surface area of mucosa exposed to the airWhat is the function of sinuses? What do their mucosa do? What is sinusitis?-Serve to reduce weight of skull -Mucosa propels mucus into nasal cavity through small pores -Sinusitis: inflammation of sinuses and pain due to accumulation of mucusWhat does the choanae mark?-Where nasal cavities come to an end, where nasal septum and hard palate terminateWhat is the purpose of the auditory tube?-Connects pharynx to middle earWhat is another name for the pharyngeal tonsil?AdenoidWhat is the function of the epiglottis?-Act as valve to cover the superior opening of the larynxWhat cartilage forms the Adam's apple?-Thyroid cartilageWhat CN innervate vocal cords?CN 10What do the vocal folds do?-Cover the vocal ligamentsWhat is the Valsalva's maneuver?-Where vocal folds held together to prevent passage of air to increase intra-abdominal pressure. Used in coughing, forceful urination, defecation, and childbirth.How is the right lung different from the left lung?-Right lung has 3 lobes when the left lung only has 2What is the function of the visceral pleura?-Covers the lungsWhat is the function of tracheal rings?Hold airway open, prevent collapse during inspirationWhat occurs to tissue distribution as airways continue to branch?-Amount of cartilage decreases -Amount of smooth muscle increasesHow many secondary bronchi are in the left lung? Right lung?-Left: 2 -Right: 3What innervates the diaphragm? Name for these nerves? What does diaphragm do?-C3-C5, aka phrenic nerves -Diaphragm contraction increases volume of thorasic cavity to lower its pressure, drawing air into lungsCompare forced inspiration and expiration to non-forced.-Forced: intercostal muscles, abdominal muscles, and scalenes help contraction -Nonforced; only use diaphragmWhat surrounds the pleural cavities? What is the function of the visceral pleura?-Pleural cavities surrounded by parietal pleura -Visceral pleura cover the outside of the lungs