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Introductory Neuroscience - Auditory Sensation
Terms in this set (18)
Amplitude and frequency correspond to which two sound experiences?
Amplitude = loudness
Frequency = pitch (high pitch is high frequency)
How is K+ influx involved in the hearing process? What is the endolymph and perilymph? What is the ion channel distribution in each?
The Scala Media is a high K+ concentration (endolymph); A perilymph has a low K+ concentration
How does the ion distribution of the inner ear result in similar or different action potential processing compared to Exam 1?
There are no K+ ions in the inner ear. Instead they are all outside.
What are sound receptor cells called?
What are the major structures in the outer ear? Middle ear? Inner ear?
Outer ear: Pinna, Concha, Auditory meatus Ear Canal, and Eardrum
- Funnel; localize the sound onto the eardrum
Middle ear: Malleus, Incus, and Stapes (hammer, anvil, and stirrup)
Inner Ear: Cochlea and Semicircular Canals
What are the ossicles? Which one connects to the oval window? Which one connects to the tympanic membrane?
Malleus, Incus, and Stapes
Stapes connects to the oval window
Malleus connects to the tympanic membrane
We discussed different types of ion channels for exam 1: ligand gated and voltage gated. For hearing, we discussed a new kind. What are they and how do they work?
Mechanically Gated: potassium channels; high K+ outside, low or no K+ inside; RELATIVITY
What major membranes "sandwich" the hair cells of the ear?
Basilar Membrane moves upward, reticular lamina up, and stereocilia bends outward (towards largest)
What is the primary (central) auditory pathway from cochlea to brain?
ventral cochlear nucleus to superior olive (both in brain stem) to inferior colliculus (midbrain) to MGN (thalamus) to auditory cortex (temporal lobe)
Which major cranial nerve is auditory information signaled through?
What does tonotopy mean?
refers to the spatial arrangement of where sounds are processed in the brain
Where on the cochlea are high frequency (e.g., high pitched) sounds detected?
outer part of cochlea
Where are low frequency waves detected?
at base or inner part of cochlea
What is the organ of corti?
in the middle scala of the ear, the actual hearing apparatus
How do we localize sound?
Through sound localization; brain integrates the information it gets from both ears (we draw on the intensity and timing differences)
Which part of the thalamus is important for hearing? Is that the same as vision?
Medial Geniculate Nucleus (MGN). It is not the same as vision.
True/False: the semicircular canals and cochlea are connected.
Large Point "Essay" Question: How do we hear? Explain including relevant anatomy and brain areas. Be brief but include all the relevant terms and anatomical parts discussed in class.
- When you hear something, molecules are displaced by sound waves
- These waves move through outer ear towards eardrum where they make the Tympanic Membrane vibrate
-This vibration moves through middle ear causing ossicles (ear bones, -incus, malleus, stapes) to vibrate which then vibrates the oval window
- This creates a pressure wave in the inner ear's fluid that bends hair cells (receptors) causing neurons on basilar membrane of the cochlea to fire
• Hair cells bend and open k+ channels (or close them), leading to depolarization or hyperpolarization depending on direction
• Changes neurotransmitter release rate, impacting post synaptic cell (e.g., auditory nerve)
- This neuronal firing travels along auditory nerve to the cochlea nucleus, to the superior olive of the mid
-pons, to the inferior colliculus of the midbrain, the MGN of the thalamus and the brain's primary auditory cortex
- Resulting in you hearing the sound
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