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Weather and Climate
Terms in this set (50)
warm air pulled across a cold surface cools and dew point is reached resulting in advection fog
large mass of air which has relatively uniform temperatures and moisture
the percentage of solar radiation reflected back to space
instrument which measures wind speed
compass direction in which a slope faces. In northern hemisphere warmest slopes have a southern aspect
another name for high pressure area
instrument which measures air pressure
a warm dry wind which brings warming effect to areas on the eastern side of the Rocikes. Calgary experiences Chinook winds several times in winter.
high cloud made of ice crystals. Usually seen ahead of approaching warm front.
the leading edge of a cold air mass
the heating of the atmosphere by the earth causes the air to warm and rise, resulting in rising convection currents. As the rising air cools, the water vapour condenses and clouds and precipitation occur.
Force created by the spinning of the earth. This force deflects winds to the right in the northern hemisphere and to the left in the southern hemisphere.
Cloud which builds vertically. Produces heavy rain, hail and thunder.
Area of no winds in the equator area
Area if no winds in the equator area
Droplets of condensed water vapour
As air cools it loses its ability to hold moisture in the form of water vapour. When air is cooled until it is 100% saturated, water vapour begins to condense into water droplets.
environmental lapse rate
A drop in temperature occurs with elevation. Temperature is reduced by 1° Celsius for every 150 meters of elevation.
Warming of earth's atmosphere as outgoing radiation is absorbed by carbon dioxide and water vapour. Fossil fuel burning has accelerated the effect.
Warm ocean current which begins in the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean and moves north along the eastern coast of North America.
A tropical disturbance with wind speeds exceeding 120 km/h. A distinctive feature of all hurricanes is the "eye", an area in the center of the storm that has clear skies and no wind.
Lines joining areas of equal pressure on weather maps
incoming solar radiation from the sun
land cools fast after sunset and in turn cools the air in contact with it. The warmer air over the ocean rises and is replaced by the heavier denser air from the land. This flow of air from the land to the ocean is referred to as a land breeze.
The dry side of a mountain barrier where air undergoes adiabatic warming, resulting in sunny skies and no rain.
A small area with climate conditions that differ considerably from the surrounding area.
A large scale wind system that brings heavy rains in summer season. Winds reverse in winter bringing dry conditions.
A low lying heavy layered cloud associated with warm fronts. Produces prolonged steady precipitation.
North Atlantic Drift
Continuation of the Gulf Stream as it moves across the Atlantic Ocean.
An occluded front forms when a faster moving cold front overtakes a slower moving warm front. A combination of cold front and warm front weather is produced.
orographic or relief precipitation
When air is forced to climb over a mountain barrier, the air cools as it rises causing dew point to be reached. Water vapour condenses to form clouds and rain falls on the windward slopes of the mountain,
Layer of atmosphere that protects earth from harmful ultraviolet rays of the sun.
The leading edge of cold polar air mass from the north.
All forms of condensed water vapour that falls from the sky. Precipitation may be liquid or solid as is the case with frozen rain or hail.
On still clear nights when ground cools rapidly, the ground cools the air in contact with the it so that dew point is reached. The condensing water vapour is the fog we see.
An area of diminishing precipitation on the leeward side of mountain barriers.
When air can hold no additional water vapour. 100% relative humidity.
In summer, when the sun's rays heat the land excessively, the land heats the air above it causing the air to expand and rise. Air from the ocean rushes in to replace the rising air over the land. The air moving to land is referred as a sea breeze.
A front that stays in one place neither advancing nor retreating
Layer of the atmosphere above the troposphere. This layer lacks the air turbulence of the troposphere and extends from about 10 km. to 50 km.
A phenomena where temperatures increase with altitude.
Instrument used to measure air temperature in degree Celsius or Fahrenheit.
A very violent localized funnel-cloud storm which can generate wind speeds of nearly 800 km/h. Common in flat land areas of North America usually originating as part of frontal weather where continental polar and tropical marine air masses meet.
A severe tropical storm in the west Pacific. Called hurricanes or cyclones in other parts of the world.
Steady winds which blow from subtropical highs to equatorial low pressure areas.
Lowest level of the atmosphere. Contains clouds, rain, wind, as well as all other factors of weather.
The leading edge of an advancing warm air mass.
Moisture held in air in gaseous form.
Winds from the Pacific in mid-latitudes.
The general direction from which the wind blows.
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