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APES unit 8
Terms in this set (32)
point source pollution
pollution that enters a body of water from a specific source
how does the Clean Water Act deal with point source pollution?
requires point sources to get permits before discharging effluent (waste) into water & requires the effluent to be treated
nonpoint source pollution
pollution that comes from many sources rather than from a single, specific site
scrapes nets along ocean floor and crushes & breaks coral
unattended nets, traps, fishing lines; damage & injure reefs
sodium cyanide is used to stun fish, poisons coral
how does sedimentation affect coral?
blocks sun so no photosynthesis can occur
oxygen sag curve
plot of dissolved oxygen levels in relation to distance from pollution source
biological oxygen demand
amount of dissolved oxygen needed by aerobic decomposers to break down organic materials
what is the trend in an oxygen sag curve?
the further from the source of pollution, dissolved oxygen increases and biological oxygen demand decreases
why does biological oxygen demand increase after excess nutrients are released into water?
more dissolved oxygen is needed for microorganisms to break down nutrients from a pollution source
how does oil affect birds?
the bird's feathers is coated, causing loss of insulation and flight
how does oil affect marine animals?
inhibits waterproofing and the ability to maintain body temperature
how does oil affect organisms on the ocean floor?
kills them if they ingest or are submerged in it
what are economic effects of an oil spill?
damaged fisheries, decreased tourism and real estate in coastal communities
how do suspended sediments affect aquatic life?
reduces light for photosynthesis for primary producers & impacts predators that rely on vision
how do settled sediments affect aquatic species?
eggs and larvae of aquatic species are smothered
heavy metals in drinking water can cause
cancer, organ damage, neurological issues
mercury used in industrial processes is converted into ___ by bacteria
mercury poisoning is caused by
eating organisms that contain methylmercury
mercury can cause
neurological damage and birth defects
extremely small pieces of plastic that release endocrine disrupting chemicals
any chemical that interferes with production, transport, metabolism, and function of hormones in bodies
endocrine disruptors block or mimic
signals that trigger cellular response
endocrine disruptors cause
reproductive issues like low-sperm count as well as embryological development problems
water covers soil for all or most of the year
explain the filtering capacity of wetlands:
water moves slowly which gives sediments time to drop out of suspension, meaning pollutants are taken up by plant roots or microbes in soil
explain how wetlands have flood control:
they act like sponges & water moves slowly
how are coastal shorelines stabilized by wetlands?
they prevent erosion by absorbing energy from the ocean
how do wetlands maintain water flow during dry periods?
they recharge groundwater because their soil is constantly saturated and maintain surface water flow in dry seasons
why are wetlands such productive ecosystems?
shallow water, plenty of plants, nutrient-rich soils
tidal wetlands that are particularly productive & absorb 4x the carbon dioxide that upland forests can
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