providing the student with systematic, explicit multimodal instruction in all the essential, evidence-based components of reading
because convergent research on dyslexia supports a language-based, multimodal approach to instruction that is systematic and explicit; addresses all five components of reading (phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and text comprehension); and integrates spelling and writing instruction with reading instruction. Language-based means that attention is given to all the major language systems (phonology, morphology, semantics, syntax, and discourse). Multimodal instruction involves using auditory, visual, and tactile-kinesthetic sensory systems along with articulatory-motor components to help students link spoken language to the printed language on the page. It also involves integrating listening, speaking, reading, and writing activities to reinforce new learning across language modalities. Systematic means that the teacher uses a planned sequence of evidence-based instruction with an emphasis on developing accuracy and automaticity in all skills. The sequence of instruction follows an optimal order for introducing new information and skills according to the increasing complexity and/or relative utility of linguistic units. Explicit means that language structures (e.g., phonemes, letter-sound relationships, syllable types) and skills are taught directly to students using modeling and/or demonstration, explanation, examples, teacher-guided practice, and independent practice leading to automaticity.
because in this assessment students are representing phonemes (sounds) with graphemes (letters). The number of graphemes a student writes and the sequence of the graphemes provides insight into the students' phonemic awareness, specifically their phonemic segmentation skills. If a student spells a CVC word with one letter that represents the beginning sound, it indicates that the student most likely perceives only the initial or most salient sound in a word. If the student spells a CVC word with both the beginning and ending consonants, this suggests that the student can perceive the initial and final phoneme of a word. If the student spells a target word with a beginning and an ending consonant along with a vowel in the middle, even if it is the wrong vowel, this indicates the ability to perceive three sounds. Likewise, if a student spells a target word that contains a blend (e.g., slug) using only three letters (e.g., sug), this suggests that the student likely can perceive words with up to three phonemes but not four phonemes. Thus, by analyzing students' spellings in this brief screening assessment, a teacher can draw some conclusions about a student's ability to perceive phonemes in words (i.e., phonemic awareness). This information can help inform instruction in phonemic awareness to support students' spelling and decoding development.
is a visual activity that allows students to map graphemes onto the individual phonemes or sounds they represent in a word. A grapheme is a written symbol that represents a sound. A grapheme can be a single letter or a sequence of letters (e.g., ea, -tch). In a phoneme-grapheme map, each box is a sound box and only one sound can go into each box. So, phoneme-grapheme mapping provides students with a visual aid to reinforce phonics elements, such as consonant digraphs (e.g., ch) and vowel teams (e.g., ai, ea), which each make one sound and therefore appear in one sound box, and consonant blends (e.g., -nt, ‑st), which make two sounds and therefore must be mapped to two sound boxes. By engaging in phoneme-grapheme mapping, students both hear and see the relationship between letters, letter combinations, and the sounds they represent. Folktale themes tend to be universal, so students are likely to have the necessary schema to comprehend them.
folktales convey universal themes common to most cultures, such as the virtues of compassion, generosity, and humility succeeding over the vices of greed, selfishness, and excessive pride or boastfulness. In addition, different versions of some folktales exist across cultures (e.g., Cinderella stories). Thus, students in a multilingual, multicultural classroom are likely to have the necessary schema, or background knowledge, to comprehend the stories because of the universality of these themes.