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providing the student with systematic, explicit multimodal instruction in all the essential, evidence-based components of reading
because convergent research on dyslexia supports a language-based, multimodal approach to instruction that is systematic and explicit; addresses all five components of reading (phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and text comprehension); and integrates spelling and writing instruction with reading instruction. Language-based means that attention is given to all the major language systems (phonology, morphology, semantics, syntax, and discourse). Multimodal instruction involves using auditory, visual, and tactile-kinesthetic sensory systems along with articulatory-motor components to help students link spoken language to the printed language on the page. It also involves integrating listening, speaking, reading, and writing activities to reinforce new learning across language modalities. Systematic means that the teacher uses a planned sequence of evidence-based instruction with an emphasis on developing accuracy and automaticity in all skills. The sequence of instruction follows an optimal order for introducing new information and skills according to the increasing complexity and/or relative utility of linguistic units. Explicit means that language structures (e.g., phonemes, letter-sound relationships, syllable types) and skills are taught directly to students using modeling and/or demonstration, explanation, examples, teacher-guided practice, and independent practice leading to automaticity.