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Adaptations Unit 2, Ch. 5 Flashcards
Terms in this set (21)
A segment of DNA that contains the instructions for building a product is called
a . . .
Living organisms have tens or even hundreds of thousands of different kinds of (Blank) in their bodies.
What do the proteins that an organism's genes instruct it to build determine?
An organism's traits.
Because chromosomes in many plants and animals are found in matched pairs, these plants and animals have . . .
Two copies of each of their genes.
How might two siblings with the same parents have different eye color?
They may have different alleles, specific forms of a gene, that affect eye color.
What does the variety of alleles in a population account for?
The genetic variation present in the population.
A new allele is produced when . . .
A mutation occurs where a gene is located in a DNA molecule.
How do mutations arise?
Which mutations can be passed to an organism's offspring?
Those that affect the genes carried in an organism's sex cells
What is the relationship between mutations, alleles, and traits?
Mutations create new alleles, which can give rise to new traits.
Which of these organisms' traits are NOT caused by mutations?
Peppered wings in peppered moths.
What are the three categories of mutations that affect alleles' frequency in populations?
Harmful, neutral, and beneficial.
As a result of natural selection, (Blank) alleles become less common in a population over time.
Over time, the proportion of neutral alleles in a population . . .
Randomly fluctuates up and down.
How can mutations result in new adaptations in species?
Natural selection causes beneficial mutations to become more common in a population over time.
Which of these mutations is paired with its correct category?
Lactase persistence: beneficial mutation
Why are previous years' flu vaccines ineffective the next flu season?
Mutations change the flu virus's surface proteins, so the immune system no longer recognizes and attacks them.
How is the flu vaccine tested?
Animals are given the vaccine and then exposed to different flu viruses.
Scientists have determined that the universal flu vaccine should be designed to attack targets on the (Blank) of the virus's proteins, where they are affected by fewer mutations.
What have scientists learned from iterative testing of potential vaccines?
It has provided the necessary information to improve vaccine design.
Some mutations are caused by environmental factors that damage DNA, such as . . .
All of the above.
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