83 terms

# Physical Science Final

Review for FInal Exam
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a constant slope on a distance time graph indicates
constant speed
speedometers measure
instantaneous speed
a moving object does not accelerate if
its velocity remains constant
accelaration is represented by a
curved line
how fast a velocity is changing at a specific moment
instantaneous acceleration
the force that opposes the motion of objects that touch as they move past each other
friction
static friction is _____ than sliding friction
greater
what force(s) act on a falling object?
gravity and air resistance
in terminal velocity, the net force is
zero
drag
air resistance
projectile motion
the curved path an object follows
inertia
tendency to resist any change in motion
acceleration (formula)
net force/mass
momentum
an impelling force or strength
biggest universal force
gravity
A force that causes an object to move in a circle
centripetal force
pressure (formula)
force/area
fluid
flows and assumes shape of container
bernoulli's principle
as speed increases, pressure decreases
device used to change a force
hydraulic system
change in pressure is transmitted equally to all parts of the fluid
pascals principal
apparent loss of weight in an object placed in a fluid
buoyancy
g/cm^3 is the unit for
density
for work to be done on an object, the object has to ____
move
si unit of work
joule
work formula
force x motion
rate at which work is done
power
units of power
watt and horsepower
what is a machine?
a device that changes a force
to increase the work output, you must ___________
increase the work input
what is the mechanical advantage of a machine?
number of times the machine increases the input force
what is an inclined plane wrapped around a cylinder
screw
in a first class lever the fulcrum is always between the
effort force and resistance force
the IMA of a third class lever is always
less than one
______ of an object increases when work is done
energy
unit for energy
joule
if the mass of an object doubles, its _______________ doubles
kinetic energy
kinetic energy of an object is the direct proportion of its
speed
energey that is stored
potential energy
equation for potential energy
pe=mgh
kinetic energy+potential energy=
mechanical energy
c=
speed of light
_____ is the transfer of thermal energy because of a temperature difference
heat
the transfer of thermal energy with no overall transfer of matter is
conduction
the transfer of energy as waves move through space is
the transfer of thermal energy that takes place mostly in fluids is
convection
a material that conducts thermal energy well is called a
thermal conductor
the study of the conversion between heat and other forms of energy is called
thermodynamics
longitudinal waves have
compressions and rarefactions
transverse waves have
crests and troughs
sound waves are
longitudinal
________ waves vibrate perpendicular
transverse
________ waves vibrate parallel
longitudinal
what does amplitude measure?
greatest displacement of a wave from rest position
if two waves collide and form a temporary larger wave, the interference is
constructive
in a standing wave, where is there no displacement from rest position?
node
what standard measure is used to compare sound intensities
decibel
the change in frequency of a wave as its source moves in relation to an observer
doppler effect
what kind of waves are electromagnetic
transverse
warm objects give off more _________ radiation than cooler objects
infrared
what is the speed of light in a vacuum
3 times 10 to the 8th
objects that scatter SOME of the light are
translucent
combining equal amounts of the three primary colors of light produce
white light
when is light produced?
when electrons change energy levels in an atom
objects that transmit almost all of the light that it strikes are
transparent
what electromagnetic waves have the shortest wavelength?
gamma rays
refraction
bending of a ray of light
light of a single wavelength with all the waves lined up
laser light
angles of incidence and reflection make rays that are _______________ to a mirror
perpendicular
what is the image that appears to be behind a plane mirror?
virtual
when light exits a vacuum and enters another medium, it
slows down
what is the speed of light in a material that slows compared to the speed of light in a vacuum
index of refraction
unit for current
amp
unit for resistance
ohm
a material that has almost zero resistance at low temperatures is a
superconductor
potential difference is measured in
volts
a complete path through which charge flows is a
circuit
where is magnetic force strongest?
poles
what is the angle between the direction a compass points and geographic north?
magnetic declination
ferromagnetic
materials that can be magnetized
voltage can be induced in a conductor by a changing magnetic field