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CH 19 PET
Terms in this set (153)
Regulation of pH and body temperature, transport and protection are all functions of the
List the three primary types of plasma proteins.
The type of plasma protein that forms the threadlike proteins formed in blood clotting is
The formed element(s) of the blood is/are the:
The most abundant of the formed elements are:
What are the formed elements of the blood? (answer without saying specific names)
The formed elements include all of the cells and cell fragments found in the blood
What is hemopoiesis?
Production of any of the formed elements of blood.
In the fetus, hematopoiesis occurs in the yolk sac, lymph nodes, red bone marrow,_____,_____,and ______
liver , thymus , & spleen
Hemocytoblasts give rise to , which in turn give rise to platelets
Neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils all arise from
Hemocytoblasts are the stem cells for:
all formed elements
Blood's homeostatic functions include:
regulating body temperature, regulating pH, protection against infection
Which of the following would be an abnormal RBC count for a woman?
6.1million RBCs/microliter (Recall that the normal range for females is 4.2 to 5.4 million RBCs per microliter of blood.)
phagocytes - first WBC to respond to infection
allergic response-defense against worm parasites
allergic and inflammatory response-release heparin and histamine
immunity - humoral and cellular immunity
transform into macrophages - act as phagocytes
Identify the characteristic shared by all leukocytes.
Presence of a nucleus (While all leukocytes have a nucleus,the size and shape of the nucleus varies.)
Typically first to respond , phagocytic and secretes lysozymes
Fight parasitic infection and destroy inflammatory agents
Important in immunity
True or false: Each hemoglobin molecule consists of 6 protein (globin) chains and 6 heme groups.
False (This statement is false.Hemoglobin consists of 4 globin chains and 4 heme groups)
Indicate the three types of hemoglobin
adult, fetal, embryonic
What are the main function(s) of red blood cells?
Transport both oxygen and carbon dioxide
Increased gas diffusion across the RBC membrane and their ability to pass through small blood vessels can be attributed to _
their biconcave shape
The main component of the red blood cell is?
About 55% of the blood volume consists of ____ and approximately 45%. of the blood volume consists of _____.
About 55% of the blood volume consists of
[ plasma ]
and approximately 45%. of the blood volume consists of
[ formed elements. ]
Approximately % of oxygen is transported in the blood bound to hemoglobin. The remaining oxygen is dissolved in plasma.
The rupture of red blood cells is called?
Iron is critical for the synthesis of _____,the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells.
Iron is critical for the synthesis of
[ hemoglobin ] ,
the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells.
Describe adult hemoglobin
A protein that is composed of two alpha and two beta globins.
Embryonic and fetal hemoglobin have a ______affinity for oxygen than does adult hemoglobin.
The term ______ refers to hemoglobin that is carrying oxygen.
The term oxyhemoglobm refers to hemoglobin that is carrying oxygen.
Hemoglobin that is not carrying oxygen is referred to as?
Identify the component of red blood cells that binds to oxygen.
Hemoglobin with oxygen bound to it is called __, and is hemoglobin with carbon dioxide bound to it.
oxyhemoglobin , carbaminohemoglobin
Each "fully loaded" (saturated) hemoglobin molecule can carry _____ oxygen molecules.
Most adults have liters of blood.
4 to 6 liters of blood
True or false: The heme portion of hemoglobin binds carbon dioxide.
False (This statement is false. Hemoglobin binds C0 on the globin portion of the molecule. The heme portion carries oxygen)
Carbaminohemoglobin is hemoglobin that is carrying:
Name the condition in which an inherited mutation that codes for a faulty beta globin chain of hemoglobin leads to the distortion of the red blood cells.
Elongated,pointed RBCs are typical of patients with
Erythropoiesis refers to the _____?
production of red blood cells
Indicate the correct order of stages of erythrocyte development.
Name the compound that is a breakdown product of hemoglobin and is secreted by the liver into the small intestine as part of bile.
High levels of bilirubin in the blood lead to a condition called ______?
Describe how bilirubin is formed
Bilirubin is formed from biliverdin which is a breakdown product on the non-iron part of the heme group.
What is conjugated bilirubin?
Free bilirubin that has been joined to glucuronic acid in the liver.
Blood, a type of connective tissue, is composed of _?
matrix (plasma) and formed elements
How is hypoxemia (low oxygen levels in blood) detected and what is the result?
Hypoxemia is detected by the kidney.The kidney then secretes erythropoietin
When red blood cells are broken down, the globin portion of hemoglobin is recycled to produce
other cellular proteins
Which of these is a stimulus for the release of the hormone erythropoietin?
Decreased blood oxygen levels
As hemoglobin from ruptured erythrocytes is degraded, what happens to the iron from the heme part of the molecule?
It is carried to the bone marrow to be used in erythropoiesis
Name the hormone that stimulates the bone marrow to produce more red blood cells by increasing the number of proerythroblasts.
The cells and cell fragments of blood are called ______the liquid matrix of blood is called plasma.
After birth,hematopoiesis occurs in:
red bone marrow
Hemocytoblasts give rise to _, which in turn are the precursors to erythrocytes.?
In addition to oxygen, hemoglobin transports approximately 23% of the waste _ _,•the remainder is dissolved in the plasma.
The formed element that is biconcave, anucleated and approximately 7.5 microns in diameter is the ______?
The complex mixture of water, proteins, nutrients, electrolytes, wastes,hormones and gases is called _____.?
When the toxic compound carbon monoxide binds to hemoglobin, it forms a stable compound called?
Maintaining plasma colloid osmotic pressure is primarily accomplished by the plasma protein called ______.
Indicate which type of plasma protein has a role in immunity and the immune response.?
The most abundant type of molecule in blood plasma is:?
Blood is comprised of cells and cell fragments, together called 11formed elements suspended in a liquid matrix called _____?.
The red bone barrow is responsible for hematopoiesis when?
In both the embryo and after birth
Hemocytoblasts give rise to ________,which in turn are the precursors to erythrocytes.
Approximately % of carbon dioxide in the blood is transported bound to hemoglobin. The rest is dissolved in plasma or converted to bicarbonate ion.
Which of the following best describes a red blood cell?
Biconcave , anucleate cell approximately 7.5 microns
What is carboxyhemoglobin?
Hemoglobin with carbon monoxide bound to it.
Mature red blood cells are unable to divide or undergo protein synthesis. What feature of the cell accounts for this?
Lack of nucleus and other organelles
List two features of reticulocytes that differ from a mature red blood cell.
1. Reticulocytes have polyribosomes-RBCs do not
2. RBCs are more numerous - only 0.5-1.5% of circulating blood cells are reticulocytes
function of erythrocyte
function of leukocyte
function of platelets
Which organ produces most of the plasma proteins?
Carbon dioxide bonds to what part of the hemoglobin molecule?
The target organ of erythropoietin is the ______.
red bone marrow
Some of these cells become plasma cells which can produce antibodies.
These cells can enter the tissues as macrophages and are important in chronic infections.
Which enzyme converts fibrinogen into fibrin?
This condition is caused by abnormal hemoglobin.
Oxygen binds to the _______ portion of hemoglobin.
If a patient has pernicious anemia, the inability of the body to absorb vitamin B12, the patient __________.
would have a decreased number of red blood cells
Which of the following statements is true regarding the mechanism controlling movement of white blood cells into damaged areas?
White blood cells exit the capillary and move through the tissue spaces with cytoplasmic extensions by following a trail of chemicals produced by other white blood cells.
An elevated neutrophil count would be indicative of ________.
an acute bacterial infection
Why don't platelets form plugs in undamaged vessels?
Only contact of platelets with exposed collagen fibers and von Willebrand factor causes them to be sticky and form plugs
Activation of the extrinsic pathway of coagulation requires exposure of the blood to _________.
tissue factor III
Why doesn't a clot fill the entire vasculature system once it has started forming?
1. Rapid blood flow washes away and dilutes activated clotting factors.
2. Thrombin is inactivated by antithrombin III if it enters the general circulation.
An oral heparin medication might be prescribed for a patient who:
is at risk for embolism (clots that spontaneously form and wedge in blood vessels).
is a condition of insufficient RBC's or hemoglobin (quality or quantity)
a condition of excess number of RBCs caused by..
• hypoxia (natural "blood doping" is training at high altitude
• shots of EPO (illegal "doping"
• smoking (COPD
Iron deficiency anemia
• is the most common anemia in the U.S., and affects primarily menstruating women
• 20% of all women of childbearing age have iron deficiency anemia, compared with only 2% of adult men
Sickle-cell disease (SCD), also called sickle-cell anemia
• is an autosomal recessive disorder. A genetic defect in the primary DNA sequence leads to production of a faulty Hgb β chain, and RBCs that take on a rigid, sickle-shape
• Sickling decreases the cells' flexibility and results in a variety of complications - life expectancy is shortened
is the result of precipitous blood loss, and results in an equal decrease in Hct, Hgb content, and RBC count
bacterial infection -elevated percentage of
viral infection-elevated percentage of
Albumin is synthesized in the ______ and contributes significantly to the ______ and the body's ability to _____
Albumin is synthesized in the liver and contributes significantly to the blood viscosity and the body's ability to maintain blood pressure
blood osmotic pressure and act as carrier molecules
bilirubin and steroids
β- globulins carry
copper and iron
immunoglobulins (antibodies) made by activated B lymphocytes called plasma cells
is a sequence of responses that stops bleeding
Three mechanisms reduce blood loss
1. Vascular spasm
2. Formation of a platelet plug
3. Blood clotting (coagulation)
AB individuals are "universal recipients" because
they have neither anti-A nor anti-B antibodies
Type O individuals are "universal donors" because
their RBCs have no antigens on the cell surface that can potentially react with the recipients serum
Hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) results when
an Rh+ fetus develops in the womb of an Rh- woman
Hematopoiesis or hemopoiesis
blood cell production (formed elements)
liquid part of blood, yellow
• stem cell (all formed elements)
• Pluripotent stem cell (also called)
• is a protein molecule adapted to carry O2 (and CO2 as well
• Hgb molecule consists of 4 large globin proteins (2 alpha and 2 beta chains), each embedding an iron-containing heme center
destruction of RBC
incomplete combustion of gasoline
hormone, kidney, stim more RBC
take up ruptured RBC
iron part of heme
Heparin & ethyl- enediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) & sodium citrate
vasodialate & inhib clot factors from platelets (counters thrombin
condense clot process
enzyme that hydrolyzes fibrin
intro of fluid other than blood
plasma proteins (specific)
clumping of cells
hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) or erythroblastosis fetalis
anti-Rh antibodies from mothers first pregnancy
increased rate of RBC destruction
normal size RBC
small size RBC
large size RBC
determines ABO and Rh blood groups
donors serum mixed with recipient's serum
white blood count (WBC)
low WBC count
complete blood count (CBC)
RBC, hemoglobin & hematocrit measurement, WBC count & differential WBC count
red blood count (RBC)
RBC per microliter of blood
condition too many RBC's
amount of hemoglobin in blood
% of RBC in total blood
high WBC count
cancer of red marrow, abnormal structure & function (usually has leukocytosis, high WBC count)
differential white blood count
how much of each WBC
250k - 400k per micro liter
low platelet count, chronic bleeding through small blood vessels and capillaries
Prothrombin time measurement
how long for blood to clot
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