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Exam #2 - MICR 130
Terms in this set (51)
Be able to identify (on diagrams similar but not SAME EXACT ONES to Figure 3.12 on p. 103 and Figure 3.35 on p. 123) and describe the structure and function of the structures found in prokaryotic cells and Eukaryotic cells that were discussed in class.
What is the structure and function of chromosomes & DNA?
Chromosomes are made of DNA; they contain cellular information, the body's blueprints for survival
What is the structure and function of Cytoplasm?
Nutrient soup (liquid, water, and nutrients) that fills the cell
What is the structure and function of Ribosome?
structure-small, spherical, made up of proteins and rRNA; either floating in the cytoplasm or attached to the E.R.
What is the structure and function of a Cell (Plasma) Membrane?
The innermost layer surrounding the cell; it's a semi-permeable phospholipid bilayer that controls what goes in and out of the cell
What is the structure and function of Glycocalyx (capsule)?
The outermost layer of the cell; thick layer of polysaccharides; makes cells sticky, and allows bacteria to avoid being eaten by immune cells (camouflages or makes them too big)
What is the structure and function of Flagella?
Structure-Long, whip-like; occur singly or in pairs
What is the structure and function of Pilli & Fimbriae?
shorter than flagella; tube/hair-like; made of proteins
Function: to adhere to surfaces (fimbriae) or genetic transfer (pilli)
What is the structure and function of Plasmid?
A small ring of DNA outside of the chromosome that holds genes that lets them compete with other microbes better, such as the antibiotic resistance genes.
What is the structure and function of Inclusion Bodies?
"Empty Sacks" that store nutrients
What is the structure and function of endospores?
structures that certain bacteria have; makes bacteria very hard to kill
What are organelles? How are Prokaryotic cells different from Eukaryotic cells in terms of complexity of their structure?
Organelles are complex and organized structures within the cell. Prokaryotes are simpler and have no membrane-bound organelles, while eukaryotes are more complex internally and do contain membrane-bound organelles.
How do Erythromycin and Tetracycline kill bacteria? (Hint: Look in your notes on ribosomes)
They bind to bacterial ribosomes and prevent them from making proteins.
Know the examples of bacteria given in class that have capsules or pili/fimbriae, and how the organisms use those structures to allow them to cause human disease. Be able to recognize the name of each of the organisms and the disease they cause.
Capsules: Streptococcus pneumoniae (avoids phagocytosis by camouflaging as our own cells) & Streptococcus mutans (helps bacteria stick to teeth)
Neiserria gonorrhoeae (STD, gonorrhea; fimbriae holds onto tissue)
What is the structure and function of the cell wall? What might happen if the cell wall structure is missing or weakened?
The layer in the middle, between the membrane and the capsule; provides structure, shape, and support to the cell. Cell could burst or shrivel
What is peptidoglycan and what is its basic chemical structure (i.e. what BIMs is it made out of?)?
long chains of amino acids and polysaccharides that protect bacteria
What is the specific structure of the gram positive and gram negative cell walls?
Be able to identify if a cell wall is Gram Positive or Gram Negative based on diagrams similar (but not EXACT SAME) to Figure 3.26 on page 126
A gram + cell wall has a thick layer of peptidoglycan; gram - has two thin layers of peptidoglycan, as well as LPS
What is osmotic variation and which cell structure protects bacteria from it?
Variation in osmosis (isotonic, hypotonic, hypertonic); basically the direction of the movement of water in and out of the cell.
The cell wall is what protects bacteria from it
What are the other forms of membrane transport mechanisms?
Simple Diffusion, Osmosis, Facilitated diffusion, Active transport
What is osmosis?
movement of water from high to low concentration
Be able to solve osmosis problems if given percentages for solution the cell is placed in (like I did on the Powerpoint slide with beakers on it)
Define normal flora (indigenous biota)
The flora that live on our skin
Define opportunistic pathogen
Pathogens that wouldn't normally get us sick unless our resistance has been lowered.
What are the sites on the body where you would expect to find normal flora populations?
Nasopharynx (ears, nose, throat), skin, mouth, Upper respiratory tract, GI tract, urogenital tract
relationship between two species
Neither symbiont is affected in the relationship
one species benefits and the other is neither harmed nor helped
both species benefit from the relationship
one species benefits (parasite) and the other is harmed (host)
Toxins from one bacteria species used against another bacteria species
Define microbial antagonism
competition between microbes
What are the benefits that we gain from our normal flora that were listed in class, and any examples given?
They provide competition for food and space against opportunistic pathogens, and sometimes kill other bacteria. Example: E.coli releases bacteriocins to kill Salmonella species.
They make vitamins, like vitamin K.
Know what microbial antagonism is and the role it plays in Clostridium difficile infections
Antibiotics kill off the competition for Clostridium difficile. Clostridium difficile is opportunistic and has endospores; it's difficult to treat/kill, and areas infected must be surgically removed
What are the 3 general processes that can cause a change or shift in the type of symbiotic relationship a normal flora organism has with its host? (involving opportunistic pathogens)
NF gain access to a site it normally doesn't inhabit;
the dominant population at a site is suppressed, allowing the opportunistic pathogens to take advantage of all the new free space;
host's immune system is surpressed
What were the examples given in class of the opportunistic pathogens that are NF, and what are the diseases they cause?
1. E. coli: causes UTI
2. Streptococcus pneumoniae: causes bronchitis/sinusitis
3. Peritonitis: inflammation of the peritoneal cavity by enteric bacteria
What is a biofilm and where are they found in humans; Why are they a problem?
thin layer of microbial growth; found on teeth & skin
Biofilms are naturally antibiotic-resistant
Which species is the most common type of biofilm found on indwelling medical devices?
What are the characteristics that are used to classify (identify) bacteria?
Size, shape, staining (gram) characteristics, atmospheric reaction, nutritional requirements, genetic composition. Maybe also pathogenicity
How are Rickettsia, Chlamydia, and Mycoplasma different from other bacteria; which of the three are obligate intracellular pathogens, and why?
All three (Mycoplasma, Chlamydia, & Rickettsia) are obligate intracellular pathogens; Chlamydia & Rickettsia don't make their own ATP
Mycoplasma doesn't have a cell wall
Know how Domain Archaea differs from bacteria. Where are they found?
Archaea are found in extreme environments
What is an obligate intracellular parasite? Why are viruses generally considered to be "not cells"?
An obligate intracellular parasite must reside within a cell. Viruses are acellular.
Be able to describe/draw the basic structures that make up a viral particle/virion.
Nucleic acid core, 1-2 enzymes (used to take over the host cell), Protein coat (capsid), and possibly an envelope
What are the 3 major groups of viruses (based on host type)?
Bacteriophage, Viroids, Animal viruses
What types of characteristics are used to classify animal viruses?
Type of nucleic acid they have (RNA or DNA), Number of strands of nucleic acid, Shape & size of capsid, presence of envelope or not
What are the 6 steps of animal viral replication/infection; and what occurs during each of the steps?
Attachment: attach to cell and fit "key" into cell's "lock"
Penetration: get accepted into cell
Uncoating: remove capsid & expose nucleic acids
Biosynthesis: Nucleic acid is transcribe/translated so the host cell makes the virus' proteins & nucleic acid
Assembly: build the particle/virion
Release: Lysis or budding
What is an acute viral infection, what is a latent infection? Know the examples of latent infections given in class.
Acute: host gets ill and either dies or lives with a new immunity.
Latent: host gets ill, then gets better, but the virus just lays dormant in the nerve endings, not leaving.
What is a prion?
What is spongiform encephalopathy?
a brain lesion that creates "holes" in the brain where the neurons used to be; caused by prions
What is the relationship between mad cow disease and CJD? Symptoms?
CJD is like the human version of mad cow disease
List the 3 virus examples and the disease they cause from Table 6.2 of your textbook that you chose to memorize for Exam #2. Correct spelling is needed for full credit.
Simplexvirus: genital herpes, cold sores; HSV-1 and HSV-2 (i.e. Herpes)
Recommended textbook explanations
Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry
David L Nelson, Michael M. Cox
Fundamentals of Biochemistry: Life at the Molecular Level
Charlotte W. Pratt, Donald Voet, Judith G. Voet
Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Peter V Minorsky, Steven A. Wasserman
Campbell Biology (AP Edition)
Cain, Campbell, Minorsky, Reece, Urry, Wasserman
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