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AP Human Geography Unit 6
Terms in this set (66)
A cluster of enterprises that can provide assistance to each other through shared talents, services, and facilities.
Where cargo is transported from one mode of transportation to another.
Bulk-Gaining Industry (Weight Gaining)
An industry in which the final product weighs more or comprises a greater volume than the inputs
Bulk-Reducing Industry (Weight Losing)
An industry in which the final product weighs less or comprises a lower volume than the input.
Manufacturing based in homes rather than in a factory, commonly found before the industrial revolution.
The process of industries leaving the crowded urban centers of the U.S. Eastern megalopolis and move to other locations
A process by which companies move industrial jobs to other regions with cheaper labor, leaving the newly deindustralized region to switch to a service economy and to work through a period of high unemployment.
A theory which holds that the political and economic relationships between countries and regions of the world control, and limit the economic development possibilities of poorer areas.
Tourism to exotic or threatened ecosystems to observe wildlife or to help preserve nature.
Export Processing Zones
Manufactioring zones that come with the benefit of favorable tax, regulation, and trade agreements for foreign firms.
Promoting sustainability. The movement advocates the payment of a fair price as well as social and environmental standards in areas related to the production of a wide variety of goods
Fast World / Slow World
A term that describes those places exhibiting a high degree of connectivity with other places, and which is marked by good telecommunications service, a high degree of inward investment, and ease of transportation to the rest of the world.A term used to describe those places exhibiting low degrees of connectivity and marked by poor communications with the rest of the world, little inward investment, and a general state of under- or de-development
Refers to so called developed, capitalist, industrial countries, roughly, a bloc of countries aligned with the United States after World War II, with more or less common political and economic interests: North America, Western Europe, Japan and Australia
An industry not affected by the same effects of a bulk gaining industry
Fords idea that the dominant mode of mass production that endured for much of the past century. Fordist also includes a social structures that supported mass production by corporations.
Foreign Direct Investment
Investment in the economies of LDCs by transnational corporations based in MDCs. However, all countries are not recipients of this investment. Brazil, China and Mexico were the LDCs that received the most of the investment
Four Asain Tigers (Dragons)
Refers to the economies of Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong, and South Korea.
The term refers to nations (cultural entities, ethnic groups) of indigenous peoples living within or across state boundaries (nation states).
Friction of Distance
The increase in time and cost that comes with increasing distance.
Compares the level of development of woman with that of both sexes.
GDP (Gross Domestic Product)
Encompasses only goods and services produced within a country during a given year.
Gender equaility measure
The Gini coefficient's main advantage is that it is a measure of inequality by means of a ratio analysis, rather than a variable unrepresentative of most of the population, such as per capita income or gross domestic product.|
Global Divison of Labor
The ability to draw labor from around the globe for different components of production.
GNI (Gross National Income)
The monetary worth of what is produced within a country plus income received from investments outside the country.
GNP (Gross National Product)
A measure of the total value of the officially recorded goods and services produced by the citizens and corporations of a country in a given year.
Human development issue
IMF (International Monetary Fund)
The lending of massive amounts of money to peripheral and semi-peripheral countries with restriction strings attached.
A series of inventions that brought new uses to known energy sources, and new machines to improve efficiency, and enable other new inventions.
Places where two or more modes of transportation meet in order to ease the flow of goods, and reduce the costs of transportation.
Just in Time Delivery
Rather than keeping a large inventory of components or products, companies keep just what they need for short term production and new parts are shipped quickly when needed.
Ladder of Developement
theory of economic development which claims that all countries tend to go through roughly the same pattern when transforming from a poor economy to a rich one.
Least Cost Theory (Weber)
A theory that accounted for the location of a manufacturing plant in terms of the owner's desire to minimize three categories of cost. Transportation, labor, agglomeration.
A theory predicting where businesses will or should be located.
Locational Interdependence (Hotelling)
The location of an industry in reference to the location of other industries of like kind.
Model dealing with location interdependence that states that firms will identify a zone of profitability, rather than a point of profitability, where income will outpace the costs
A program that gives money to the poor, particularly women, to encourage the developement of businesses.
NIC (Newly Industrialized Country)
Newly industrialized country
NGO (Nongovernmental organizations)
An organization not run by the state or local governments.
The North-South Divide is a socio-economic and political division that exists between the wealthy developed countries, known collectively as "the North", and the poorer developing countries (least developed countries), or "the South."
When outsourced work is located outside a country.
A single factory is outsourced to suppliers, who focus their production and offer cost savings.
Whereby the major world powers control the economies of the poorer countries, even though the poorer countries are now politically independent, sovereign states.
A more flexible set of production practices in which goods are not mass produced; instead, production has been accelerated and dispersed around the globe by multinational companies that shift production, outsourcing it around the world and bringing places closer together in time and space than would have been imaginable at the beginning of the twentieth centuary.
The rapid growth of the Quaternary, and Quinary sectors.
Takes into account price differences between countries; usually goods in LDCs are priced lower, so this makes the difference between LDCs and MDCs less
Primary Industrial Regions (Map)
The four primary industrial regions that stand out on the map are Western and Central Europe, Eastern North America, Russia and Ukraine, and Eastern Asia.
The part of the economy that draws raw materials from the natural environment.
Industries for the collection, processing, and manipulation of information and capital.
Industries for the actives the facilitate complex decision making and the advancement of human capacities.
| Legislation that gives workers the right, under an open shop, to join or not join a union if it is present
Rostow's Developement Model
The classic development model.
The industral zone of the northeastern United States.
The portion of the economy concereced with manufacturing useful products through processing, transforming, and assembling raw materials
Refers to the former communist-socialist, industrial states, (formerly the Eastern bloc, the territory and sphere of influence of the Union of Soviet Socialists Republic) today: Russia, Eastern Europe (e.g., Poland) and some of the Turk States (e.g., Kazakhstan) as well as China
Special Economic Zones
Specific area within a country in which tax incentives and less stringent environmental regulations are implemented to attract foreign business and investment.
A theory that holds economic disparities are built into the system - people built, organized, and structured the world-economy in a certain way that cannot be changed easily.
Structural Adjustment Loans
Managed by Europeans, The loans are made to countries to alleviate major economic problems.
The southern region of the United States, stretching threw the southeast to the southwest.
Services related to transportation and communication.
Are all the other countries, today often used to roughly describe the developing countries of Africa, Asia and Latin America.The term Third World includes as well capitalist (e.g., Venezuela) and communist (e.g., North Korea) countries, as very rich (e.g., Saudi Arabia) and very poor (e.g., Mali) countries.
Adults and children fleeing poverty or seeking better prospects are manipulated, decieved, and bullied into working conditions the would otherwise not choose.
Costs such as energy supply, transport expenses, labor costs, and other costs relating to the industrialiazation of an area.
A disease spread by a host (person) to another by an intermediate host or vector. Mosquitoes, Leeches, Rodents
The World Bank is an international financial institution that provides loans to developing countries for capital programmes
World Trade Organization works to negotiate rules of trade among the member states
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