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A&P Integument system Quiz
Terms in this set (16)
List the general functions of the integumentary system.
-Protects deeper tissues from mechanical damage, chemical damage, microbe damage, UV radiation, thermal damage, and desiccation.
-Aids is body heat loss or retention
-Excretion of urea and uric acids
-Synthesizes vitamin d
Describe the main structural features of the epidermis, and
explain the functional significance of each.
The first layer is the stratum corneum. The cells are dead and flat filled with keratin. The functions of this layer extend beyond holding water. It also blockers the penetration of UV radiation and other harmful things that will go past the skin barrier. The next layer is the stratum granulosum. This layer makes a lot of the keratin, which is a protein that provides water resistance and a foundation for hair and nails. The next layer is stratum spinosum which is cells that contain thick bundles of filaments made of pre-keratin. This layer is a result of stem cell division. The last layer is the stratum basale It attaches to the basement membrane and forms epidermal ridges in the dermis. This is also the layer where stem cells are actively dividing.
Identify the five layers of the epidermis.
Stratum basale, spinosum, granulosum, ludicum, and corneum. Ludicum is only found within thick skin.
Dandruff is most likely composed of cells from which layer of the epidermis?
The stratum corneum.
What are the two pigments in the epidermis?
One is melanin (brownish) and the other is carotene (yellowish).
Explain what accounts for individual differences in skin
color, and discuss the response of melanocytes to sunlight
Melanin ranges from yellow to brown to black. It is produced by melanocytes. Excessive exposure to sunlight damages the skin. It can alter the DNA of skin cells, leading to skin cancer.
Describe the interaction between sunlight and vitamin D3 production.
Vitamin D3 is produced by the sunlight. This is done by mystified cholesterol molecules in the skin being converted to Vitamin D by the sunlight.
What is the most common skin cancer and why is it the most common?
The most common type is basal cell carcinoma. This is because the cells in the stratum basale layer are laterd so they cannot form keratin and they are the most sun exposed spots which is why the cancer is more likely to form there.
Describe the structure and functions of the dermis.
There are two layers of the dermis, the papillary layer and the reticular layer. The papillary layer is the superficial dermal region. It is uneven and has dermal papillae. This indents into the epidermis above. The reticular layer is the deepest layer of the skin. It has dense irregular connective tissue, blood vessels, sweat and oil glands, and deep pressure receptors.
Describe the structure and functions of the hypodermis.
The hypodermis contains adipose tissue (fat). It anchors the skin to underlying organs and provides a site for nutrient storage as it is a fatty tissue. It also serves as a shock absorber and insulates the deeper tissues.
Describe the mechanisms that produce hair and the structural basis for hair texture and color.
Hair is formed by well nourished stratum basale cells in the matrix of the hair bulb. As the daughter cells are pushed further away they become keratinized and die. Each hair is made up of a center core consisting of large cells and air space. It is surrounded by a cortex layer made of flattened cells. It is enclosed by a cuticle.
If a burn on the forearm destroys the epidermis and the deep dermis and then heals, will hair grow again?
Yes because the hair follicles are in the dermis so as long as the dermis is not destroyed, hair can still grow.
Discuss the various kinds of glands in the skin, and list the secretions of those glands and the function of those secretions.
There are cutaneous glands that are all exocrine glands. They release their secretions into the skin surface via ducts. They fall into two groups, sebaceous glands and sweat glands. The sebaceous glands are found all over the skin except on the palms of hands and soles of the feet. Their ducts empty into a hair follicle. Sweat glands are widely distributed throughout the skin. There are two types of sweat glands. Eccrine glands produce sweat and are found everywhere while apocrine glands are found in the armpit and genatil regions of the skin.
Describe the anatomical structure of nails, and explain how
they are formed.
Nails are a scale like formation of the epidermis. The root of the nail is embedded into the skin. The stratum basale layer extends beneath the nail. As the matrix produces more nail cells they become more keratinized.
Explain in steps and pictures, how the skin responds to injury and repairs itself.
Your skin triggers a four stage wound healing process that includes the production of collagen. When a body is injured, immune cells rush to the site to remove the debris and any harmful things. Red blood cells then form a blood clot to stop the bleeding and provide a barrier so there is no infection. The collagen and new connective tissue then form.
Why can skin regenerate effectively even after considerable damage has occurred?
Because the cells are able to reproduce and replace the damaged cells with new cells.
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