Final Study Questions

Where does transcription take place?
Click the card to flip ūüĎÜ
1 / 75
Terms in this set (75)
Which of the following is a complication of edema? A.Wounds heal slowly B.Weight loss C.Temperature increases D.Decreased blood pressureA- wounds heal slowlyWhich of the following could be true if a person exhibits tachycardia and hypotension? A.They are hydrated B.They are dehydrated C.They are over hydratedB. they are dehydratedWhat is going on with this ABG? pH 7.14, PaCO2 52, HCO3 25respiratory acidosisWhat is going on with this ABG? pH 7.14, PaCO2 44, HCO3 18metabolic acidosismanifestations of hypercalcemia-Constipation, fatigue, kidney stones, muscle weakness, lack of coordinations -phosphorous decreasesCalcium Fx-transmits nerve impulses -induces prothrombin-? thrombin for clottingHow would a deficiency in protein contribute to edema?Low protein leads to low oncotic pressure, eating normally pulls the fluid back in and decreases the swellingUpon arrival, you observe that the patient is hyperventilating. He complains of light-headedness and heart palpitations. What acid base imbalance is happening and why?Respitory alkalosis, breathing off too much Co2You are caring for a patient who experiences a seizure, which lab value are you going to look at? A. Potassium B. Sodium C. Calcium D. PhosphorusA. Potassium7. Your patient is experiencing peaked T-waves, which lab finding would you expect? A. Hyperkalemia B. Hypokalemia C. Hypercalcemia D. HypocalcemiaA. hyperkalemia8. You are caring for a patient with has been unable to get out of bed for weeks which lab value would you expect to find? A. Hyperphosphatemia B. Hypermagnesemia C. Hypercalcemia D. HypernatremiaC. hypercalcemiaYou are caring for a 13-year-old child. You notice they have been visiting their pediatrician frequently for flu-like symptoms. The patient is admitted for dehydration due to frequent diarrhea and fatigue. On assessment you noticed an enlarged spleen. The CBC results are pending. Patient is thought to have?Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia: flu-like symptoms, frequent infections, enlarged spleen, fatigue, frequent diarrhea caused by frequent infections. CBC would show high WBC, low RBC low plateletsThe patient is presenting with petechia and feels fatigued and short of breath when walking. What hematologic issues are you worried about, why?Could be: clotting, anemia, thrombocytopeniaWhat are general symptoms people with leukemia can experience, why?-bone pain, high WBC, signs and symptoms of coagulation disorders, infections and decreased immunityWhat type of blood can someone with Type AB receive?A.A B.B C.AB D.O E.All of the above F.None of the aboveThrombocytopenia may be caused by all of the following except: A.Autoantibodies B.Drug hypersensitivities C.Viral stimulation of platelet production D.Bacterial infections that decrease platelet productionC. Viral stimulation of platelet productionWhat laboratory finding would you expect to see on a CBC for thrombocytopeniadecreased platelet count. < 150,000Cardinal signs of inflammation◦Redness ◦Warmth ◦Swelling ◦Tenderness/Pain ◦Loss of functionWhat are some examples of innate immunity1)Epithelial cells -skin, nasal, mucous, tears, sweat, urine, stomach acids 2) Natural killer cells 3) Dendritic cells 4) phagocytesWhat are some examples of adaptive immunity?1)Cell mediated 2)B lymphocytes 3)T lymphocytes 4)CD4 5)Plasma calls 6)ImmunoglobulinsWhy do old people get sick more often?-thymus decreases in size as you ageà impacted T cell function -immune response decreases as you age=normal process (by 60/65) -kids spike fevers more easily than the elderly -changes in environment/exposure *immune system is a bell curve (weakest during infancy and elderly)What are systemic responses you might see related to pneumoniaInfectious process causing inflammationà pneumoniaà -fever -elevated WBC -elevated CRP(C reactive protein) or ESR(erythrocyte sedimentation rate) -audible crackles in lungs -productive cough -malaise, anorexia, decreased appetite -fluid accumulation (bc of inflammatory response) Bacterial vs viralWhich hypersensitivity is related to an antibody mediated disorder A.Type 1 B.Type II C.Type III D.Type IVType II- body attacking antigen presenting cellsWho is the first WBC responder to a site of injury? A.Lymphocytes B.Monocytes C.Basophils D.NeutrophilsD-neutrophilsWhich of the following is cell mediated immunity most responsible for? A.Producing Immunoglobulins B.Binds to the surface of the invading cell and disrupts the cell membrane directly C.Alters the epithelial lining of tissues D.Release if mast cells for histamine releaseB- recognize, tag, destroy (mast cells= inflammatory process as a whole) (immunoglobulins= humoral response)Which of the following statements is true regarding immunoglobulin A? A.It is found in tears and saliva B.It activates the complement system C.It can cross the placenta D.It is the most common antibody in the bloodA B-IgE-allergic reaction C-IgG IgD-hypersensitivity IgM-first responderA CBC with differential shows elevated eosinophils. This could mean which of the following is occurring? A.Viral infection or allergic reaction B.Bacterial infection or parasitic infection C.Fungal infection or viral infection D.Allergic reaction or parasitic infectionD- type I hypersensitivityDiabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension (HTN) are common diseases that...◦that can damage the endothelium lining of arteries.Determinants of BP include...include blood volume, elasticity of blood vessels, cardiac output (CO), and peripheral vascular resistance (PVR)Substances in the blood that may affect the active cells in the endothelial lining and therefore the function of the arteries...◦ ◦Lipids ◦Triglycerides ◦Glucose ◦Free Radicals ◦Nicotine ◦HomocysteineWhat is the role of macrophages in the formation of atherosclerotic plaque?monocytes in blood attach to epithelium and become macrophages, start breaking down LDLs, become fatty/foamy cell deposits, starts to block the arteryHow is smoking thought to contribute to atherosclerotic plaque formation?smoking creates the original injury in the endothelial liningà starts cascadeWhat is the most common symptom of Peripheral Arterial Disease? A. Intermittent claudication B. Chest pain C. Difficulty breathing D. Cyanotic extremitiesA- calf painIf the body senses a fluid volume overload what will happen? A.The RAAS is activated B.ADH is released C.Natriuresis D.Increased aldosterone secretionC- NatriuresisOrthostatic hypotension is an issue with which of the following? A.Arteries B.Veins C.Heart D.LymphBvenous system, don't have blood volume coming back up to the heartWhat is the cause of venous insufficiency? A.Prolonged standing B.Incompetent valves C.Endothelial dysfunction D.Venous infection E.AneurysmsA, B, CWhich of the following is true regarding renin?A.It stimulates the release of water and sodium B.It stimulates an increase in heart rate C.It stimulate the release of angiotensin II D.It is released by the kidneys E.It is released by the ventricles of the heartDWhich of the following does not help in regulation blood pressure? A.Baroreceptors B.SNS C.Endocrine system D.Parasympathetic nervous systemDWhich of the following assessments indicates a venous issue? A.Cold skin B.Decreased pedal pulses C.Calf pain (intermittent claudication) D.Ankle ulcerDWhat is a STEMI?ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI)- related to electrical activity in the heart, specific pattern of ST segment elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome- Heart attack, tissue in the heart has lost oxygen and become ischemicWhat are the physiologic effects of myocardial ischemia that produce ST segment changes?Infarcted tissue can't conduct electricity- MIà anerobic metabolismà infarcted tissueà inability to conduct electricityWhat is preload? a)The amount of resistance the ventricle has to overcome to eject blood= PVR/afterload b)The amount of blood pumped by the ventricle in 1 minute= Stroke volume c)The volume of blood filling the ventricles d)The ability of the heart to increase output in response to demand= contractility, compensationCWhat is the patho of myocardial infarction? a)Complete obstruction of a coronary artery b)Heart is unable to pump sufficient blood to the body c)Systemic vasoconstriction a causing decreased blood flow d)Localized weakness and dilation of the coronary arteriesA b=HF c=drugs d=aneurysmWhich test is the most helpful for heart failure? a) ECG b) ECHO c) Troponin 1 d) BNPdIn cardiac tamponade, excess fluid accumulates in the pericardial activity causing increased blood pressure T/FF- inability to pump blood out= decreased BPWhich of the following best describes angina? a)Chest pain that occurs when there is a deficit of RBC b)Chest pain that occurs when you are an online nursing student c)Chest pain that occurs with a deficit of oxygen to heart muscle d)Chest pain that occurs with impaired function of bone marrowCWhich of the following are complications of an MI? aHeart failure bCardiogenic shock cSeptic shock dDeathA,B, DWhere does blood back up with aortic valve regurgitation? a)Right atrium b)Right ventricle c)Left atrium d)left ventricleDWhich statement is true about mitral valve stenosis? a)will back up into the left ventricle b)Pulmonary edema can develop c)The right ventricle will rarely be affected d)DVTs are common complicationsBWhich statement is most true of blood shunting from the right to left? a)Minimal complications b)Blood is moving from the arterial to the venous system c)There is an increase in ANP d)Blood is moving from the venous to the arterial systemDWhat does atelectasis mean? A.Labored gasping breathing pattern; associated with extreme conditions of hypoxia B.Breathing pattern alternating periods of deep and shallow respirations C.Palpable vibration transmitted through the patient's bronchi to the chest wall D.Collapse of a small number of alveoli resulting in poor gas exchangeD a-agonal respirations b-cheyne-stokes c-tactile fremitusWhat common complication can occur with aspiration?Right Middle/Lower Lobe PNAFollowing hip surgery. The nurse warns the patient to report chest pain, dyspnea and increased respiratory rate. What is the pulmonary disorder associated with these symptoms and this post-op condition? A.Pulmonary embolism B.Deep vein thrombosis C.Atelectasis D.Community acquired pneumoniaAHow could you tell the difference between a viral rhinitis versus an allergic rhinitis?Viral-red nose, increased lymphocytes Allergic- dusky grey mucus, increased IgEWhat is the most common and serious cause of pleuritic chest pain? A.Acute rhinitis B.Pulmonary embolism C.COPD D.AsthmaBYour patient is suspected to have pulmonary HTN due to right sided heart failure. All of the following are signs of right-sided heart failure except which one? A.Peripheral edema B.Jugular venous distention C.Pulmonary edema D.GI disturbancesCWhich of the following can be used to diagnosis chronic bronchitis? A.Chest x-ray B.Pulse oximetry C.Chronic hyperreactive airway and bronchoconstriction over 2 years D.Airway obstruction with prolonged expiratory phase and air trapping E.Chronic productive cough for 3 consecutive months in 2 consecutive yearsETo increase airway pressure and prevent airway collapse what type of breathing strategies will be used by the COPD patient? A.Cheyne stokes breathing B.Pursed lip breathing C.Short term hyperventilation D.Kussmaul respirationBWhy is someone at risk for developing other infections after influenza?respiratory epithelial cells + cilia damagedà gaps, allows fluid through-> inflammationà increased permeabilityà increased fluid accumulationà dark, warm, moist, bacteria thriveWhy does someone with severe asthma become physically fatigued during a prolonged attack?Bronchiospasms, bronchiole edema, mucous plugs, accessory muscle use, air trapping Working hard to get air in and not suceeding2. Which of the following statements are true? A. Drugs related to addiction release more dopamine. B. Diagnosis of addiction can occur with a blood toxicology. C. The reward system is easy to break. D. In addiction, the body produces less dopamine.D6. Which of the following is the SNS response to shock? A. To inhibit ADH. B. Decrease respiratory rate to encourage more O2 uptake. C. Increase temperature to allow the body to perfuse. D. Increase heart rate to increase blood flow.D12. The nurse is caring for a 78-year-old female. The patient has severe hypotension, tachycardia, decreased urine output, acidosis, and hyperventilation. She is currently afebrile and blood cultures at U/A were negative. The nurse notices her I/O's for the past 24 hours are intake 400ml, and output 50ml. What type of shock is this based on the clinical manifestations and lab findings? A. Anaphylactic B. Cardiogenic C. Hypovolemic D. Neurogenic E. SepticC14. When caring for a patient with pneumonia the nurse notes on assessment severe hypotension (BP 75/52), tachycardia (HR 137), increased respiration (RR 32). The patient is unable to answer orientation questions. What type of shock is this based on the clinical manifestations and lab findings? A. Anaphylactic B. Cardiogenic C. Hypovolemic D. Neurogenic E. SepticEWhat are the clinical manifestations of a fractures?deformity, swelling, muscle spasm, impaired sensation and decreased mobility