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BIO 116 TEST 2
Terms in this set (227)
Which of the following processes occurs in the nodules of legume roots?
- nitrogen fixation
- All of the listed responses are correct.
- cation exchange
- pH regulation
- carbon fixation
Soil can easily become deficient in ________, because these ions are negatively charged and do not stick to negatively charged soil particles.
Which of the following substances does a plant obtain from the air?
- All of the listed responses are correct.
reduced internode length; zinc
Which of the following nutrient-deficiency symptoms is correctly matched with the deficient nutrient?
- reduced internode length; zinc
- wilting; boron
- general chlorosis in young leaves; carbon
- mottling of older leaves, with drying of leaf edges; calcium
- poor growth; nitrogen
Plants prefer basic soil pH.
All of the following statements regarding soil pH are correct except ________.
- Plants prefer basic soil pH.
- Soil pH below 5 allows toxic aluminum ions to be absorbed by plants.
- Soil pH should be matched to a crop's mineral needs.
- Plants prefer slightly acidic soil pH.
- Soil pH influences mineral availability.
If a plant is deficient in __________, it will not be able to make DNA.
contain nitrogen-fixing bacteria
Legumes (members of the pea family) have roots with swellings called nodules that __________.
nitrogen; to make protein
By trapping insects, carnivorous plants obtain __________, which they need __________.
between roots and beneficial fungi
Mycorrhizae develop __________.
Which of the following organisms can fix nitrogen?
To clean contaminated sites by using plants that have the ability to extract and store soil pollutants.
What is the goal of phytoremediation?
converting nitrogen in the air to a form usable by plants
Nitrogen fixation is __________.
The biological process that produces 96% of the dry mass of a plant is called __________.
the host plant provides the fungus with a steady supply of sugar, and the fungus increases the surface area of the plant's roots for nutrient absorption
The relationship between mycorrhizae and plants benefits both organisms because _________.
If a plant's leaves are yellowing, it may be that the plant is deficient in the elements needed to make chlorophyll, one of which is __________.
chlorosis at the tips of older leaves; nitrogen
Which of the following nutrient-deficiency symptoms is correctly matched with the deficient mineral?
- chlorosis at the tips of older leaves; nitrogen
- None of the listed pairs is matched correctly.
- very slow development; magnesium
- reduced internode length; iron
- poor growth; calcium
- chlorosis between veins; carbon
The antibiotic got into the soil and killed many of the bacteria that provide usable nitrogen to the soybeans.
A cattle farmer is forced to use antibiotics to treat an outbreak of bacterial infections in his herd of cattle. The antibiotic is excreted by the cattle in their urine and feces and ends up in an irrigation ditch that provides water for a nearby soybean (a legume) farmer. The soybean farmer begins to notice that his soybean crop is not growing as well as usual.
What might be the cause of this change in the growth of the soybeans?
Toxic aluminum ions become more available, stunting the plant's growth.
At low soil pH levels (5 or less), what can happen?
Plants require macronutrients in relatively large amounts.
Which of the following statements correctly describes macronutrients?
- Plants require macronutrients in relatively large amounts.
- Macronutrients function in plants mainly as cofactors.
- The macronutrient nitrogen contributes the least to crop growth and yield.
- Examples of macronutrients are iron, zinc, and copper.
- Plants require macronutrients in relatively small amounts.
Growing tissues would show signs of mineral deficiency of mobile nutrients after older tissues.
Which is true regarding mineral deficiency symptoms in plants?
- Growing tissues would show signs of mineral deficiency of mobile nutrients after older tissues.
- Symptoms always show up in younger leaves first.
- Symptoms of mineral deficiency always show up in older leaves first.
- Deficiency symptoms of immobile nutrients will show up first in older organs.
- Deficiency symptoms of freely moving nutrients will show up first in younger organs.
All of the listed responses are correct.
Which of the following statements correctly describes the relationship between plants and the mutualistic bacteria associated with them?
- All of the listed responses are correct.
- Endophytes and rhizobacteria both can enhance plant growth.
- Endophytes and rhizobacteria both depend on plants for various nutrients.
- Endophytes live between cells within a plant.
- Rhizobacteria live in the rhizosphere, the soil surrounding a plant's roots.
cations enter the soil solution by being displaced by other cations, particularly H+
Cation exchange is the process in which _________.
signal, before any damage to the plant has occurred, when a nutrient deficiency is imminent
"Smart plants" are genetically engineered plants that can _________.
The most abundant gas in our atmosphere cannot be used by plants directly in its atmospheric form and is, therefore, captured by certain bacteria that live symbiotically in their roots.
What is this gas?
nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium
Fertilizers are usually enriched in __________.
Ectomycorrhizae form a dense sheath over the surface of a plant's roots.
Which of the following statements is correct regarding mycorrhizae?
- Ectomycorrhizae form a dense sheath over the surface of a plant's roots.
- Arbuscular mycorrhizae are less common than ectomycorrhizae.
- Ectomycorrhizae are the most common type of mycorrhizae.
- Arbuscular mycorrhizae form a dense sheath over the surface of a plant's roots.
- Ectomycorrhizae penetrate the cell walls of a plant's root cells.
restoring the concentration of fixed nitrogen in the soil
Crop rotation benefits agriculture by __________.
Fertilizer contains minerals that are essential for healthy plant growth.
Many people add various types of fertilizers to their plants to facilitate growth. What does fertilizer contain that facilitates plant growth?
grows on other plants without using the host plants for nutrients
Epiphytes are a type of plant that ________.
The topsoil and other soil layers are referred to as _________.
What is the evolutionary significance of megaphylls?
They increase the surface area for photosynthesis.
Sori can be found in which of the following?
What structures allow plants to readily take up carbon dioxide from the atmosphere?
Water is brought into mosses primarily by what?
diffusion through all cells
Which of the following statements about algae and plants is true?
Plants have a waxy, waterproof cuticle, and algae do not.
In sporophyte ferns, the leaves are _____.
Which of the following are traits shared by land plants and their closest relatives among the algae?
-Structure of flagellated sperm
-Formation of a phragmoplast
-Rings of cellulose-synthesizing proteins in the plasma membrane
Where would you find a fern gametophyte?
on moist soil
Which of the following is true of the life cycle of bryophytes?
A moist environment is required for sexual reproduction.
Typically, the upper part of a bryophyte capsule that contains the spores features a ring of interlocking, tooth-like structures known as the __________.
To examine meiosis in ferns, you would study __________.
In moving to land, plants had to overcome which of the following challenges?
Which is a key difference between alternation of generations in plants and sexual reproduction in nonplant organisms?
In plants, the haploid and diploid stages are both multicellular.
How are gametes produced by bryophytes?
By mitosis of gametophyte cells
Which of the following is a genus in the phylum Monilophyta?
What is advantage is conferred to algae and plants that possess sporopollenin?
Reproductive cells are more resistant to desiccation.
A major division in plant systematics is based on whether a particular species has __________.
The "dots" on the underside of a fern frond are spore cases; therefore, what is true of the plant to which the frond belongs?
It is a sporophyte.
The gametophyte stage of the plant life cycle is most conspicuous in __________.
During what period did seedless vascular plants form extensive forests of tall trees?
Which of the following is a trait unique to land plants?
Walled spores produced in sporangia
The embryophytes are __________.
What characteristic of Sphagnum peatlands is responsible for their ability to inhibit decomposition?
-Phenolic compounds produced by Sphagnum
The development of the __________ prevents plants from drying out and protects them from microbes.
Alternation of generations in all land plants is between __________.
a multicellular haploid organism and a multicellular diploid organism
The tissue called phloem has what function in vascular plants?
Distribution of sugars, amino acids, and other organic products
In what way do megasporangia differ from microsporangia?
Megasporangia produce spores that develop into female gametocytes, whereas microsporangia produce spores that develop into male gametophytes.
Fern gametophytes are __________.
free-living, multicellular organisms
The antheridia of mosses produce __________.
Evidence suggests that land plants arose from within which protist lineage?
vessel (gametangium: multicellular plant structure in which gametes are formed. Female gametangia are called archegonia; male gametangia are called antheridia)
plant (bryophyte: an informal name for a moss, liverwort, or hornwort; a nonvascular plant that lives on land but lacks some of the terrestrial adaptations of vascular plants)
seed (gymnosperm: a vascular plant that bears naked seeds—seeds not enclosed in specialized chambers)
a seed (heterosporous: referring to a plant species that has two kinds of spores: microspores, which develop into male gametophytes, and megaspores, which develop into female gametophytes)
like (homosporous: referring to a plant species that has a single kind of spore, which develops into a bisexual gametophyte)
large (megaspores: a spore from a heterosporous plant that develops into a female gametophyte)
leaf (microphyll: in lycophytes. a small leaf with a single unbranched vein)
mouth (peristome: a ring of interlocking, toothlike structures on the upper part of the moss capsule, often specialized for gradual spore discharge)
bearer (gametophore: the mature gamete- producing structure of a moss gametophyte)
thread (protonema: a mass of green, branched, one-cell-thick filaments produced by germinating moss spores)
like, form (rhizoid: a long tubular single cell or filament of cells that anchors bryophytes to the ground)
Angiosperms are thought to have originated in which period?
In which phylum is the organism thought to be the world's oldest living tree?
- The world's oldest living tree is not in any of the listed phyla.
In addition to seeds, what is a trait unique to seed plants?
Which gymnosperm phylum below is characterized by large cones and fern-like leaves and thrived during the Mesozoic?
The seed coat's most important function is to provide protection for the __________.
The pore in the integuments of an angiosperm ovule through which sperm is delivered is the __________.
Which of the following is not a gymnosperm?
- Coconut palm
- Douglas fir
Which of the following is a trait possessed by all angiosperms?
- Double fertilization
- Seeds dispersed by animals
- Pollination by animals
- Seeds produced in ovulate cones
- Free-living gametophyte
Dietary supplements and decongestants containing ephedrine have recently become more strongly regulated in the United States. Ephedrine is an extract of a plant belonging to which phylum?
All vascular plants
In which group is the sporophyte stage dominant in the alternation of generations?
- All vascular plants
- Only seed plants
- Only the ferns
- Only nonvascular plants
- All land plants
Which of the following is enclosed within the pollen wall of a pollen grain?
- Male gametophyte
- Female gametophyte
Six major crops—wheat, rice, maize, potatoes, cassava, and sweet potatoes—constitute what percentage of all the calories consumed by humans?
In gymnosperms, the seed coat develops from the integument. In angiosperms, the seed coat develops from the __________.
Which of the following is not a trait characteristic of monocots?
- Floral organs in multiples of three
- Pollen grain with one opening
- One cotyledon
- Parallel leaf venation
Protection and dispersal of seeds
Which of the following best describes the function of fruits?
- Protection and dispersal of seeds
- Depending on the plant species, any of the listed responses are possible
- To distract herbivores from eating the leaves
- Food storage for the plant to use over the winter
- Reward for pollinators
Birds with long beaks
A bright pink flower with deep floral tubes will most likely be pollinated by which mechanism?
Which of the following is not an advantage seeds provide over spores?
- Asexual reproduction
- Protective integument
- Stored food supply
- Long period of dormancy
The sperm of some gymnosperms have flagella
Which example below is evidence provided by living gymnosperms of an evolutionary transition between seedless and seed plants?
- The sperm of some gymnosperms have flagella.
- In gymnosperms, two sperms are discharged into the pollen tube.
- Gymnosperms only have one integument.
- Some gymnosperms do not have reduced gametophytes.
- The sperm of gymnosperms do not require water or mobility for fertilization.
In flowers, pollen is produced in the __________.
Only the sperm of angiosperms combine with two central cell nuclei to form triploid endosperm.
Of the following, which is a difference in how reproduction occurs in gymnosperms compared to angiosperms?
- Only the sperm of angiosperms combine with two central cell nuclei to form triploid endosperm.
- Only angiosperms have reduced gametophytes.
- Only gymnosperms can contain male and female sporangia on the same plant.
- Double fertilization only occurs in gymnosperms.
- Only angiosperm pollen grains form pollen tubes.
The climate became drier and warmer.
What significant change occurred on Earth between the Carboniferous period and the Permian period that most likely contributed to the success of the gymnosperms?
The diploid generation of the plant life cycle always __________.
At current rates of deforestation, tropical rain forests will be eliminated in __________ years.
an ovary; an ovule
A pea pod is formed from __________. A pea inside the pod is formed from __________.
They were homosporous.
The closest seedless relatives of seed plants produce one kind of spore that gives rise to a bisexual gametophyte. What does this suggest about the ancestors of seed plants?
The dicots are now thought to be in the paraphyletic group, and the majority of dicot species are now placed in the eudicots. Which of the following is a member of a group that was included in the dicots but is now included in the eudicots?
- Southern magnolia
- Black walnut
- Date palm
pollen grains are transferred to a flower on a different plant
A plant is said to be cross-pollinated if __________.
The pollen of conifers is primarily dispersed by __________.
All of the listed responses are conifers.
Which of the following is a conifer?
- All of the listed responses are conifers.
- European larch
- Longleaf pine
- Common juniper
Besides the plant tissue that humans ingest, which angiosperm tissue is most directly important for human survival?
mitotically active and divides to form an inner layer of secondary xylem and an outer layer of secondary phloem
In woody plants, the vascular cambium initial is ________.
Sugar-conducting structures of plants are called ___________.
Vascular bundles are scattered throughout.
Which of the following correctly describes a feature unique to monocot stems?
- Vascular bundles are scattered throughout.
- Ground tissue consists mainly of parenchyma.
- Vascular bundles are arranged in a ring.
- Vascular tissue is located all in the center.
- Lateral shoots cannot originate near the surface.
Leaves occur at intervals along the plant stem. The region where a leaf is attached to the stem is the __________.
Which example below is the site of primary growth that results in the plant increasing in height?
- Apical meristems
- Lateral meristems
- Bud scales
- Axillary buds
stolons and tubers
Evolutionary adaptations of stems include __________.
a blade and a petiole
Leaves consist of __________.
Most of the photosynthesis in plants takes place in specialized __________ cells called the __________.
one meter off the ground and more deeply embedded in the tree
If you pound a nail into a tree one meter off the ground and come back to find it in 20 years, it will be __________.
morphological changes that arise from transitions in shoot apical meristem activity
Phase changes are __________.
Annual rings in wood are evidence that in climates with a single annual growing season, the __________ divides actively when water is plentiful and temperatures are suitable for growth, and ceases to divide when water is scarce and the weather is cold.
Root hair formation is regulated by __________.
The layer that covers the apical meristem of a root is called the __________.
Removing the apical meristem stimulates growth in the axillary buds, thus making the plant bushier.
Why does pinching off the top of a plant make it bushier?
elongation of cells
Root tips are pushed farther into the soil mainly by __________.
Artichoke hearts are tender and have a strong taste. The leaves have a strong taste too, but most of an artichoke leaf is fibrous and too difficult to chew. The leaves must contain lots of __________.
Repetitive patterns in plant growth are __________.
dermal, vascular, and ground tissue systems
The three types of tissue systems that are found in all plant organs are __________.
tracheids and vessel elements
Water-conducting cells of plants are called ___________.
Evolutionary adaptations of roots include all of the following root structures except __________.
Evolutionary adaptations of leaves include all of the following except _________.
- adventitious plantlets
KNOTTED-1; leaf morphology
A Hox gene homolog in plants is called __________ and is important in __________.
vascular tissue; stele
The ________ of a root or a stem is called the ________.
lateral roots enhance the ability of the root system to anchor the plant and acquire resources from the soil
The main difference between a primary root and a lateral root is that ________.
In most leaves, chloroplast-containing cells are most closely compacted in the __________.
primary growth lengthens roots and shoots and secondary growth increases the diameter of stems and roots in woody plants
The difference between primary growth and secondary growth is that ________.
A region of dividing cells in a plant is called a __________.
Roots, stems, and leaves
_________ are the three basic plant organs.
determine the location where the cell plate will form during cell division
Preprophase bands __________.
Water uptake stored in a large central vacuole
What accounts for about 90% of a plant cell's expansion?
Which of the following structures develops from the ovule after fertilization?
The male structures of angiosperms are called __________, and they produce __________.
What might be the effect of a mutation that deactivates an S-gene in a plant in which gametic incompatibility typically occurs?
The gametes of the individual plant would self-fertilize.
Which of the following structures is not part of a seed?
In a potato, the "eyes" are vegetative buds. These buds can develop into an entirely new plant. This is an example of _________.
Which portion of an embryonic plant consists of the shoot tip with a pair of miniature leaves?
A plant that has flowers that are brightly colored would likely be pollinated by ________.
How do most flowering plants avoid self-fertilization?
They have self-incompatibility and reject their own pollen.
The black dots that cover strawberries are actually individual fruits. The fleshy and tasty portion of a strawberry derives from the receptacle of a flower with many separate carpels. Therefore, a strawberry is __________.
both an aggregate fruit and an accessory fruit
What is the function of S-genes in plants?
S-genes are involved in self-recognition and prevent self-fertilization in plants.
The female structures of angiosperms are called __________, and they produce __________.
A generative cell and a tube cell originate when __________.
a microspore undergoes mitosis and cytokinesis
In the process of pollination, pollen grains are transferred from the __________ to the __________.
Which of the following characteristics correctly identify/ies general trends in the evolution of flowers?
All of the listed responses are correct.
Ovaries located inside receptacles
Fusion of floral parts
Reduction in the number of floral parts
Which of the following structures develops from the ovary after fertilization?
Which of the following structures contain(s) and protect(s) the seeds in an angiosperm plant?
Which of the following statements regarding pollination are incorrect?
Many species of flowering plants evolved without specific pollinators.
Suppose a mutation in which the endosperm does not develop occurs in a plant. What might be the effect on the development of the seeds or seedlings of that plant?
The seedlings might not develop after germination due to a lack of nutrients.
What is a major advantage of herbicide-resistant crops?
They allow farmers to "weed" with herbicides, cutting down on soil tillage and erosion.
Which statement below accurately describes protoplast fusion?
Protoplasts can be screened for mutations that may improve the agricultural value of the plant.
Which of the following statements correctly describes the structure of a complete flower?
Complete flowers contain all four basic floral organs: stamen, carpel, petal, and sepal.
In the alternation of generations in plants, __________.
the gametes are produced by the gametophyte through mitosis and cellular differentiation
In an environment that is very stable, with reliable moisture and temperature, what type of reproduction would be most advantageous for a plant and why?
Asexual reproduction, because it ensures that the genes that have proven to adapt the plant well to the environment will be passed on to the next generation
A pea pod is formed from __________. The pea inside the pod is formed from __________.
an ovary; an ovule
Which of the following statements correctly describes one difference between a megasporangium and a microsporangium?
A megasporangium is found in the ovary of a flower, and a microsporangium is found in the anther of a flower.
What does the "Bt" in Bt maize refer to?
A gene that causes the plants to produce a chemical that becomes toxic within insect guts.
Why do seeds need water to germinate?
Imbibition of water causes the seed coat to swell and allows the cells of the embryo to rehydrate.
Which of the following statements is/are correct regarding seed dormancy?
All of the listed responses are correct.
Some seeds require high temperatures to break dormancy.
Seeds of many plants remain dormant until a specific environmental cue breaks dormancy.
Some seeds require light to break dormancy.
Some seeds require large amounts of rainfall to break dormancy.
Which of the following statements correctly describes a multiple fruit?
A multiple fruit develops from the many carpels of the many flowers that form an inflorescence.
Which of the following conditions will result in the fastest transport through the xylem in a tree, assuming adequate water supply in the roots?
Negative pressure potential in the leaf mesophyll
Because the ___________ is impermeable to water, water and minerals cannot pass directly into the root xylem of the vascular cylinder except by ___________.
Casparian strip; crossing a selectively permeable membrane of an endodermal cell
When guard cells become flaccid, _________ are __________.
K+; lost to neighboring cells
The cytoplasmic continuum connecting neighboring cells is called the __________.
Plasmosdesmata dilate in response to ___________.
viral movement proteins
In the apoplastic route, ________.
water and dissolved chemicals move along the continuum of the cell walls and the extracellular spaces
The greatest increase in surface area for absorption in the root is due to __________.
During winter, tree sap can sometimes freeze and cavitation (the formation of an air pocket) may occur. Which of the following mechanisms of sap transport would you expect to be most immediately affected by cavitation?
The proton pump __________.
pumps H+ out of the cell
The movement of sugar into the phloem is accomplished by ___________.
cotransport with H+
In an apple tree that is producing sugars, sugar might flow from __________ to ___________.
a leaf; a developing apple
The water potential of a cell is defined by the equation ψ = ψS+ ψP. Which of the following statements is true?
ψP may be either positive or negative.
A plant cell placed in a solution with a higher water potential will __________.
gain water and become turgid
Cells that are specialized for the transport of sugar between apoplast and symplast are __________ cells.
Bulk flow is facilitated by ________.
adhesion and cohesion
What is the ultimate source of energy that moves water upward in the trunk of a tree?
Evaporation of water by the sun
________ is the physical property that predicts the direction in which water will flow.
The ion that plays the primary role in basic transport processes in plants is ________.
The plant hormone that is produced by roots and leaves during times of drought is ________.
The process called _______ results from water loss due to evaporation.
What process contributes directly to the turgor pressure that opens and closes stomata?
In the symplastic route, ________.
water and dissolved chemicals move along the continuum of the cytosol
If a flaccid plant cell with a s of -0.7 MPa is placed into pure water with a s of 0 MPa, the plant cell will _________.
How might roots react when they encounter a region of the soil that is low in nitrates?
If a flaccid plant cell with a s of -0.7 MPa is placed into a solution with a s of -0.9 MPa, the plant cell will ________.
When guard cells are turgid, __________.
the stoma is open
The arrangement of leaves on a stem is called ________.
Root pressure is attributable to __________.
the accumulation of minerals in the vascular cylinder
The continuum of cell walls connecting neighboring cells is defined as the __________.
What type of root architecture allows plants to grow taller?
The immediate, direct effect of auxin in cell elongation, according to the acid growth hypothesis, is to ____________.
Going to ATP driven proton (H+) pumps
Which of the following statements is/are correct regarding the effect of blue light on plants?
Blue light initiates phototropism.
All of the above.
All of the above.
You have just cut some flowers from your garden. Which of the hormones listed could you apply to the flowers to keep them fresh?
What happens immediately after a phytochrome is activated by light?
Ca2+ channels are opened and guanylyl cyclase is activated
A physiological response to alternating light and dark cycles in plants is called__________________.
Which of the following statements correctly matches the plant hormone with its function(s)?
Auxin stimulates fruit ripening and leaf abscission.
Abscission acid stimulates cell elongation.
Gibberellins stimulate stem elongation, pollen development, and pollen tube growth.
Ethylene inhibits growth and promotes seed dormancy.
None of the above.
Gibberellins stimulates stem elongation, pollen development, and pollen tube growth.
The formation of air tubes in submerged roots is an adaptation to___________.
Imagine that you have a plant from which you want to produce cuttings so that you have more individual specimens of the plant. Which of the following plant hormones would you apply to the cut stands in order to facilitate their survival
Growing plant suits and roots respond to gravity and thus grow either two or away from it. This phenomenon is known as_____________.
If a long day plant has a critical night length of 9 hours, which 24 hour cycle would prevent flowering?
14 hours light/10 hours dark
An Alaskan trapper worried about being attacked by grizzly bears left the lights on in his cabin all the time. Plants just outside the cabin flowered a month early. Which of the following best explains this?
They must have been long day plants.
The abscission layer __________.
Is where a leaf separates from a stem
Local cell and tissue death often occurs at or near infection site in a plant. This response is called the___________.
Some seeds require light for germination. This process is controlled by the phytochrome system. Of the following termination treatments, which would inhibit germination of such seeds?
Exposure of seeds two red light followed by far-red light
Morphological adaptations in plants for growing in darkness are collectively referred to as_____________.
Growth that results in curvatures of whole plant organs toward or away from stimuli is called___________.
A tropism, which includes gravitropism, phototropism, thigmotropism, and heliotropism
All of the following are plant responses to herbivory except____________.
The release of chemicals that mimic insect hormones
The production of Ethylene
The production of Ethylene
How many a plant respond to severe heat stress?
By producing heat shock proteins, which may protect the plant's proteins from denaturing
A callus will develop roots if you use a________auxin concentration and a__________cytokinin concentration in the medium.
Seeds of many desert plants will not germinate until a heavy rain washes away their__________.
The signaling molecule for flowering might be released earlier than usual in a long day planned exposed to flashes of____________.
Red light during the night
Which of the following statement correctly describes one difference in flowering between short day plants and long day plants?
Short day plants flower one night exceeds a critical dark., And long day plants flower when night is shorter than a critical dark period.
increasing the proportion of unsaturated fatty acid's in their membranes is the response of plants to_________.
In shoots, branching is inhibited by__________from the tip of a growing shoot, but this effect is countered by__________from the roots.
All of the following functions regarding the plant hormone auxin are correct except ___________.
Promoting the formation of lateral roots
Retarding leaf abscission
Enhancing apical dominance
Unripe avocados that you purchased at the grocery store ripened quickly in your kitchen when you placed them next to overripe bananas. How did this ripening occur?
The overripe bananas released ethylene, which encourage the avocados to ripen quickly.
You have a plant that is growing taller but is not growing any lateral stems, and you want it to be fuller with more lateral growth, so you remove the apical bud. How would does removing the apical bud lead to more lateral growth in the plant?
Removal of the apical bud removes auxin from the plant, which has the effect of inhibiting lateral growth and allowing cytokinins to flow more freely in the plant, thereby encouraging lateral growth.
Light triggers many key events in plant growth and development. This process is known as_________.
Plants respond to salt stress by__________.
Producing organic solutes that adjust the water potential inside the cells.
In at least some species of plants, a leaf damaged by a caterpillar may___________.
Synthesize and release chemicals that attract wasps that prey on the caterpillar
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