Upgrade to remove ads
Terms in this set (66)
the difference between walking and running is that walking always has a period of double limb __________. Running has a period of double limb ____________
when running you experience ____________ excursions, velocities, forces, and ___________ duration of stance phase
when you are walking your kinetic and potential energy are _________ of phase which makes walking ____________ efficient
when you are running your kinetic and potential energy are _________ phase which _____________ the efficiency of running
what 2 mechanisms/structures making running more efficient
elastic structures and 2 joint muscles
elastic structures help make running more efficient by ___________ potential energy and returning it later following stretch (like a pogo stick)
what are the 2 joint muscles that transfer energy between one segment to another during running
gastroc, biceps femoris, rectus femoris
at what speed does running become more economical?
2.0 m/s, 4.5 mph, 13:20 min/mile
at heel strike the ankle is in about ______ degrees DF. The peak angle is about ________ degrees and the total amount of excursion during stance phase is about ________ degrees
5; 18; 20
at heel strike the ankle is about ______ degrees of inversion. The peak angle is about ______ and the total amount of excursion during stance phase is about _______ degrees.
5; 7; 10
movement in the ___________ plane are more difficult to capture which results in a larger measure of error
at heel strike the ankle is in about ______ degrees aDduction. The peak angle is about _________ degrees of aBduction and there is a total excursion of about _______ degrees.
3; 8; 7
the medial longitudinal arch is __________ at heel strike and it ___________ during loading. Then it _________ again for propulsion
raised; collapses; raises
at heel strike the knee is in about ______ degrees of flexion. The peak angle is about _______ degrees of flexion and the excursion is _______ degrees
15; 45; 40
at heel strike the knee (tibia) is in about ______ degrees of aDduction. The peak angle is about ______ degrees of aDduction. The excursion is _______ degrees.
0; 3; 6
tibia adduction is analogous to _________ and tibia abduction is analogous the ____________
does the knee reach full extension during running
at heel strike the knee is in about ______ degrees of external rotation. The peak ankle is about ________ of internal rotation and the excursion is ________ degrees
11; 0; 10
as the foot collapses and pronates in midstance it brings the tibia into more _________ rotated position and absorbs load
at heel strike the hip is about ________ degrees of flexion. The peak angle is ________ degrees of flexion. The excursion is _______ degrees
30; 30; 40
runners don't usually get more than 10 degrees hip extension. How do they compensate?
anterior pelvic tilt
at heel strike the hip is in about _______ degrees adduction. The peak angle is ________ degrees adduction. The excursion is ______ degrees.
10; 17; 17
after initial contact the ipsilateral stance hip is in ________. The glute med controls this movement ___________. After midstance, the glute med fires __________ to propel you forward and _________ the ipsilateral stance hip
adduction; eccentrically; concentrically; abduct
at heel strike the hip is in _______ degrees of internal rotation. The peak angle is ______ degrees of internal rotation. The excursion is _____ degrees
5; 5; 5
the hip is in __________ rotation at pushoff
generally female runners demonstrate greater knee _________, hip ____________, hip __________ rotation. These differences in the frontal and transverse planes result in more _________ work (eccentrics) for female runners.
abduction; adduction; internal; negative
are sagittal plane movements fairly similar between men and women runners
the largest ground reaction force is in what direction?
superior/inferior or vertical
___________ ground reaction forces are also called braking forces and ___________ ground reaction forces are also called propulsive forces
when looking at a graph of ground reaction forces, the first blip in vertical forces is _________ ________ and the second peak is __________
heel strike; midstance
as you propel forward, ground reaction forces ______________
when looking at a graph of ground reaction forces, the slope of the initial line is the __________ __________. This leads up to the first peak which is called the _________ _________. Then after that is the highest peak of the entire graph called the ___________ _________.
loading rate; impact peak; active peak
loading rate has a _________ component. The greater slope means greater loading rate and more rapid force to be absorbed by the body --> the faster something happen the more stiff tissues are
why are we more concerned about the impact peak when the active peak is so much greater (up to 2-3X body weight)
active peak is more broad so you have more time to dissipate forces
how do the GRFs of someone with a forefoot strike pattern differ from a rearfoot strike pattern
one broad curve (no impact peak)
are rearfoot strike runners more common or forefoot strike runners?
in the loading phases all muscles work ____________ except for the glute max which will fire _______________
during the propulsion phase (midstance to pushoff) and early swing all muscles work ___________
in late swing all muscles work ____________ to slow the advancing limb
_______ _______ ________ is the angle between the midline of the trunk and vertical. Ideally this would remain vertical
trunk side bend
if hips are falling one way, trunk will lean ___________ so the COM doesn't fall and stays in center
_____________ __________ ________ is the line connecting the iliac crests relative to the true horizontal. In males this varies ____-____ degrees and in females this varies ______-______ degrees
lateral pelvic tilt; 3-5; 4-7
one way to view lateral pelvic tilt and trunk side bend is to level off ________ before observation
joint center alignment refers to alignment at the __________ (varus/valgus) sometimes this is anatomical and there is nothing you can do about it
__________ __________ refers to the distance between the knees at midstance. If the pelvis is dropping there will be less and someone with a varus alignment will have more
______ ________ refers to the apex of the heel of the swing leg during midstance. Usually the involved side is ________
heel height; lower
_______-______ ____________ is the distance from heel to vertical line drawn from COM (crossover). This is normal the faster you run (faster than 8min/mile)
what structure goes through excessive strain during excessive crossover
________ __________ __________ is the angle that the bottom of the foot makes with the ground at initial contact. Ideally this is 10 degrees or less
foot inclination angle
_________ __________ __________ is the angle of the tibia compared to the vertical. Ideally this is within 5 degrees of vertical. Why?
tibial inclination angle; because bones are meant to withstand compression forces
if you have a greater foot inclination angle can this lead to greater tibial inclination angle?
_________ to _________ distance is the measure of the horizontal distance between the COM of the pelvis and heel counter of the shoe. Currently no ideal standards. If too great this is called _____________
COM to heel; overstriding
if you have a greater COM to heel distance, what GRF does this increase?
________ ________ angle is the angle between the midline of the thigh and midline of the tibia. Ideally this is 15-20 degrees
where is the peak knee flexion angle (40-45 degrees) when you are running (also where peak GRF are)
COM ________ displacement is the distance the COM moves from midflight to midstance. Ideally it is <6-8 cm or 2-3 inches
where is vertical COM at the highest? at the lowest?
the most common running related injury that causes anterior knee pain is ______________ _________ __________. The second most common running related injury that causes lateral knee pain is _______ ________ __________.
patellofemoral pain syndrome; IT band syndrome
IT band syndrome can be caused by __________ step width (cross-ver gait). This leads to an __________ in peak hip adduction and knee internal rotation
what would you suggest for someone with IT band syndrome?
increase step width and strengthen gluteals to handle change in gait
patellofemoral pain is a diagnosis of ____________
altered running mechanics associated with patellofemoral pain are increased hip _________ and __________ rotation
strength deficits in what muscles are associated with patellofemoral pain?
quadriceps; hip extensors, abductors, internal rotators
what gait modifications are recommended for patellofemoral pain?
increase step rate 5%; initial contact closer to COM; run more softly; glute strengthening
in medial tibial stress syndrome, repetitive loading leads to microtrauma that _________ the bone remodeling process. If microtrauma damage is greater than the bone's capacity for repair, a bone stress injury may occur
what would you recommend for medial tibial stress syndrome
decrease vertical displacement; eccentric strengthening for posterior tib and gastroc/solus; intrinsic foot musculature strengthening
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Normal Gait - English
Normal Gait - Gera
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Clinical Party Guidelines
Task Oriented Approach
OTHER QUIZLET SETS
BLS Exam 1 Part 2
CCF 1 Midterm - Written exam
EDU 210 Educational Philosophy Quiz 6
perkins spa 3123 exam 2